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Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265772
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec;14(12):831-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Sebastian E Carrasco
Bruno B Chomel
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Melissa A Miller
Kathleen A Burek-Huntington
Rickie W Kasten
Barbara A Byrne
Tracey Goldstein
Jonna A K Mazet
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec;14(12):831-7
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bartonella - immunology
Bartonella Infections - blood - epidemiology - veterinary
California - epidemiology
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect - veterinary
Otters - blood - microbiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
25514118 View in PubMed
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Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284083
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 Jul 17;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-17-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 Jul 17;
Date
Jul-17-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
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Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290856
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Author Affiliation
1 Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, California 95965, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Brucella - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Female
Islands - epidemiology
Male
Markov Chains
Monte Carlo Method
Otters - microbiology
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Rectum - microbiology
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
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HERPESVIRUSES INCLUDING NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUSES ARE WIDESPREAD AMONG PHOCID SEAL SPECIES IN CANADA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267677
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2015 Nov 10;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-10-2015
Author
Christian Bellehumeur
Ole Nielsen
Lena Measures
Lois Harwood
Tracey Goldstein
Brian Boyle
Carl A Gagnon
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2015 Nov 10;
Date
Nov-10-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Little is known about herpesviruses in Canadian pinnipeds. We measured prevalence of antibodies to herpesviruses in the sera from Canadian phocid seals by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Wild harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and captive harbor seals were positive for antibodies to Phocid herpesvirus 1 (PhoHV-1) at prevalences of 91% and 100%, respectively. Sera from wild hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandica), and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were positive for antibodies to PhoHV-1 antigenically related herpesvirus antigens at 73%, 79%, and 96%, respectively. We isolated new herpesviruses in cell culture from two hunter-harvested ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in poor body condition from Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada; one lethargic hooded seal from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada; and one captive, asymptomatic harp seal from the Magdalen Islands, Québec. Partial sequencing of the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene revealed that all four virus isolates were closely related to PhoHV-2, a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, with nucleotide similarity ranging between 92.8% and 95.3%. The new seal herpesviruses were genetically related to other known pinniped herpesviruses, such as PhoHV-1, Otariid herpesvirus 3, Hawaiian monk (Monachus schauinslandi) seal herpesvirus, and Phocid herpesvirus 5 with 47-48%, 55%, 77%, and 70-77% nucleotide similarities, respectively. The harp seal herpesvirus and both ringed seal herpesviruses were almost identical to each other, whereas the hooded seal herpesvirus was genetically different from the three others (92.8% nucleotide similarity), indicating detection of at least two novel seal herpesviruses. These findings are the first isolation, partial genome sequencing, and identification of seal gammaherpesviruses in three species of Canadian phocid seals; two species of which were suspected of exposure to one or more antigenically related herpesviruses based on serologic analyses.
PubMed ID
26555112 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279052
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 May;55:13-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Kathi A Lefebvre
Lori Quakenbush
Elizabeth Frame
Kathy Burek Huntington
Gay Sheffield
Raphaela Stimmelmayr
Anna Bryan
Preston Kendrick
Heather Ziel
Tracey Goldstein
Jonathan A Snyder
Tom Gelatt
Frances Gulland
Bobette Dickerson
Verena Gill
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 May;55:13-24
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast of Central California, USA. Forty-six individual marine mammals contained detectable concentrations of both toxins emphasizing the potential for combined exposure risks. Additionally, fetuses from a beluga whale, a harbor porpoise and a Steller sea lion contained detectable concentrations of DA documenting maternal toxin transfer in these species. These results provide evidence that HAB toxins are present throughout Alaska waters at levels high enough to be detected in marine mammals and have the potential to impact marine mammal health in the Arctic marine environment.
PubMed ID
28073526 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295532
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 05; 55:13-24
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
05-2016
Author
Kathi A Lefebvre
Lori Quakenbush
Elizabeth Frame
Kathy Burek Huntington
Gay Sheffield
Raphaela Stimmelmayr
Anna Bryan
Preston Kendrick
Heather Ziel
Tracey Goldstein
Jonathan A Snyder
Tom Gelatt
Frances Gulland
Bobette Dickerson
Verena Gill
Author Affiliation
Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: Kathi.Lefebvre@noaa.gov.
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 05; 55:13-24
Date
05-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Aquatic Organisms - metabolism
Arctic Regions
California
Caniformia - metabolism
Cetacea - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Marine Toxins - analysis
Prevalence
Abstract
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast of Central California, USA. Forty-six individual marine mammals contained detectable concentrations of both toxins emphasizing the potential for combined exposure risks. Additionally, fetuses from a beluga whale, a harbor porpoise and a Steller sea lion contained detectable concentrations of DA documenting maternal toxin transfer in these species. These results provide evidence that HAB toxins are present throughout Alaska waters at levels high enough to be detected in marine mammals and have the potential to impact marine mammal health in the Arctic marine environment.
PubMed ID
28073526 View in PubMed
Less detail

The transmission of phocine herpesvirus-1 in rehabilitating and free-ranging Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in California.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6660
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2004 Nov 15;103(3-4):131-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2004
Author
Tracey Goldstein
Jonna A K Mazet
Frances M D Gulland
Teri Rowles
James T Harvey
Sarah G Allen
Donald P King
Brian M Aldridge
Jeffrey L Stott
Author Affiliation
Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. tracey_goldstein@alaskasealife.org
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2004 Nov 15;103(3-4):131-41
Date
Nov-15-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Alphaherpesvirinae - isolation & purification
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Animals, Suckling
Animals, Wild
California - epidemiology
Disease Transmission, Horizontal - veterinary
Disease Transmission, Vertical - veterinary
Female
Herpesviridae Infections - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Hospitals, Animal
Male
Phoca - virology
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Seasons
Virus Shedding
Abstract
Phocine herpesvirus-1 (PhHV-1) causes regular outbreaks of disease in neonatal harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) at rehabilitation centers in Europe and in the U.S. To investigate transmission of this virus samples were collected from harbor seal pups during exposure studies at a Californian rehabilitation center from 1999 to 2002 and from free-ranging harbor seals off central California during the same period. The exposure studies provided evidence that PhHV-1 can be transmitted horizontally between animals most likely through direct contact with oro-nasal secretions. However vertical transmission may also occur, as adult female harbor seals were found to be shedding the virus in vaginal and nasal secretions, and premature newborn pups had evidence of early infection. Results also indicated that PhHV-1 infections were common in both free-ranging (40%, 49/121) and rehabilitating (54%, 46/85) young harbor seals, during the spring and early summer. This timing, which correlated with pupping and weaning, suggested that the majority of animals were infected and infective with PhHV-1 between pupping and breeding.
PubMed ID
15504584 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.