In the nonpregnant population, there is extensive evidence of a systemic low-grade inflammatory status in relation to excess adipose tissue. Less is known about the relation during pregnancy.
Our main objective was therefore to explore the effect of pregnancy on adiposity-related systemic inflammation.
This study is a longitudinal cohort study of 240 pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage at Oslo University hospital-Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2002 to 2005. The inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], Interleukin-6 [IL-6], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], IL1-Ra, tumor necrosis factor receptor II, and IL-10) were measured at four timepoints during pregnancy and analyzed by enzyme immuno-assay. The women were categorized based on BMI at inclusion (BMI 30 kg/m(2)). Data were analyzed by Friedman-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, or Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate.
Maternal adiposity was associated with significantly higher circulatory levels of several inflammatory markers (CRP, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-1Ra). However, this proinflammatory upregulation was not evident toward the end of pregnancy, as levels of CRP, MCP-1, and IL-6 were not any longer significantly different between the BMI categories.
Although normal pregnancy exhibits proinflammatory features, this does not seem to have additive or synergistic effects on the inflammation associated with adiposity. On the contrary, we found that the BMI-dependent increase in proinflammatory markers was not evident at the end of pregnancy.
With increasing survival rates after treatment for cancer in prepubertal girls and women of reproductive age, an increasing focus on quality of life has emerged. Both irradiation and cytotoxic drugs can be detrimental to future fertility, consequently several treatment alternatives have been developed to spare or restore fertility in young females diagnosed with cancer. One of these options is cryopreservation of ovarian tissue before treatment and autotransplantation at a later time.
We present the Norwegian experience after 11 years of practice with ovarian tissue cryopreservation. A total of 164 patients have had ovarian tissue cryopreserved during the period 2004-2014. Fifteen patients died during the observation period. Six patients requested autotransplantation, which was performed in two women.
Both patients conceived, one spontaneously and one after assisted reproduction due to a concomitant male factor. The pregnancies were uneventful and they each gave birth to a healthy child.
Cryopreservation with later autotransplantation of ovarian tissue should be offered to a selected group of young women with cancer.
Have changes in culture media used for IVF resulted in changes in offspring birthweight or placental weight that differed from the trends in offspring from spontaneous conceptions during the corresponding time periods?
Changes in culture media used for IVF were associated with significant differences in offspring birthweight and in placental weight to birthweight ratio when compared with the trend in offspring from spontaneous conceptions during the time periods.
The effect of culture media used for IVF on offspring birthweight has varied between studies. There is a large variation in birthweight between newborns, and birthweight may vary across populations and over time. Such variations may therefore have influenced previous results.
We included all singleton births from IVF at one treatment center in Norway during the years 1999-2011(n = 2435) and all singleton births from spontaneous conceptions in Norway during the same years (n = 698 359).
Three different media were used for embryo culture; Medicult Universal IVF (1999 through 2007, n = 1584), Medicult ISM1 (2008 until 20 September 2009, n = 402) and Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (21 September 2009 through 2011, n = 449). We estimated mean birthweight and placental weight in IVF pregnancies by culture media. We also estimated mean weights in IVF and in spontaneous pregnancies by year of birth. Thereafter, we studied whether the changes in mean weights in IVF pregnancies differed from the changes in weight in spontaneous pregnancies in the periods corresponding to culture media changes by applying a grouped difference-in-difference analysis. Adjustments were made for parity, maternal age and gestational age at birth.
In singleton offspring from IVF the mean birthweight was 3447.6 g with Medicult Universal, 3351.7 g with Medicult ISM1 and 3441.4 g with Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (P
This retrospective study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for cervical dysplasia and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in 89 female recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) between 1985 and 2005 who survived for more than 5 years after transplantation. All patients underwent regular gynecologic examination and cervical cytological testing. The incidence rates of cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection were calculated. Various clinical parameters were evaluated for association with cytological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) posttransplantation to identify risk factors for cervical dysplasia. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for cervical dysplasia after adjusting for confounding factors. Sixty-one of the 89 patients (68.5%) had cervical cytological abnormalities of varying grades, including atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 31.5%; 28 of 89), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; 10.1%; 9 of 89), and HSIL (27%; 24 of 89). HPV status was available for 43 patients, 12 of whom (27.9%) were HPV-positive. Among the 69 patients with normal cytological cervical smear findings pretransplantation, the incidence of cytological HSIL was 23.2% (16 of 69) posttransplantation. After adjusting for confounding factors, only unrelated HLA-matched donor and the presence of vulvovaginal chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) were independent risk factors for cervical cytology HSIL after transplantation, with the highest risk among patients with vulvovaginal cGVHD (adjusted odds ratio, 31.97). We conclude that long-term survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation are at high risk for cervical cytological abnormalities. Vulvovaginal cGVHD and unrelated HLA-matched donor were the only independent risk factors for cervical cytological HSIL in patients with normal cervical cytology before transplantation. Regular surveillance by gynecologic examination, including cervical cytological testing, in these patients allows for early diagnosis and effective management of cervical abnormality and decreases the burden of this potentially fatal, but treatable, condition.
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence at birth of birth defects in children born after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) and children born after traditional in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Altogether 553 children were born after ICSI treatment in Norway during the period 1996-1998 (351 singletons, 95 twins-pairs and 4 triplets) while 1731 were born after IVF treatment (1004 singletons, 344 sets of twins and 13 triplets). Birth defects were registered in 5.42% of children born after ICSI and in 5.14% of children born after IVF; 3,07% and 3.00% respectively were major birth defects. We conclude that intracytoplasmic sperm injection does not imply a significant increase in the prevalence at birth of birth defects compared to children conceived by traditional IVF.
To investigate the effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme preterm deliveries.
Retrospective study of deliveries in a Norwegian tertiary teaching hospital. All women with live births at 24(+0)- 27(+6) weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 were included. Major morbidity is defined as intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia or necrotizing enterocolitis. Pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal variables were initially compared for mortality and survival with major morbidity at 24-h, 7- or 28-day postpartum/discharge in univariate analysis. Then, a multivariate analysis was conducted in order to determine independent factors associated with mortality and survival with major morbidity.
A total of 109 babies were delivered alive in 92 women, representing 1.6% of total births. The survival rates were 93.6, 84.4 and 80.7%, with a prevalence of major morbidity among survivors of 40.4, 32.1 and 39.4% at 24-h, 7- and 30-day postpartum/discharge, respectively. After adjustment using multiple logistic regression, only a 5-min Apgar score = 3 and babies with at least one major morbidity had significantly independent effects on neonatal survival. Multiple pregnancy and gestational age
Cites: Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Oct;21(5):869-8217531538
Maternal age at delivery and cesarean section rates are increasing. In older women, the decision on delivery mode may be influenced by a reported increased risk of surgical interventions during labor and complications with increasing maternal age. We examined the association between maternal age and adverse outcomes in low-risk primiparous women, and the risk of adverse outcomes by delivery modes, both planned and performed (elective and emergency cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery, and unassisted vaginal delivery) in women aged?=?35 years.
A population-based registry study was conducted using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and Statistics Norway including 169,583 low-risk primiparas with singleton, cephalic labors at?=?37 weeks during 1999?-?2009. Outcomes studied were obstetric blood loss, maternal transfer to intensive care units, 5-min Apgar score, and neonatal complications. We adjusted for potential confounders using relative risk models and multinomial logistic regression.
Most adverse outcomes increased with increasing maternal age. However, the increase in absolute risks was low, except for moderate obstetric blood loss and transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Operative deliveries increased with increasing maternal age and in women aged?=?35 years, the risk of maternal complications in operative delivery increased. Neonatal adverse outcomes increased mainly in emergency operative deliveries. Moderate blood loss was three times more likely in elective and emergency cesarean section than in unassisted vaginal delivery, and twice as likely in operative vaginal delivery. Low Apgar score and neonatal complications occurred two to three times more often in emergency operative deliveries than in unassisted vaginal delivery. However, comparing outcomes after elective cesarean section and planned vaginal delivery, only moderate blood loss (higher in elective cesarean section), neonatal transfer to NICU and neonatal infections (both higher in planned vaginal delivery) differed significantly.
Most studied adverse outcomes increased with increasing maternal age, as did operative delivery. Although emergency operative procedures were associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes, the absolute risk difference in complications between the modes of delivery was low for the majority of outcomes studied.
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;31(1):163-511914314
To investigate the effect of advanced maternal age (AMA) separately in nulliparous and multiparous women on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations.
A historical cohort study on data from 6,619 singleton pregnancies between 2004 and May 2007 was performed. AMA was defined as 35 years and older. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in AMA versus women younger than 35 years (non-AMA) were compared for both nulli- and multiparae with Student's t-test and Chi-square test in univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the independent effect of AMA.
Out of 6,619 singleton pregnancies, the frequency of nulliparity was 42.7 and 33.4% of the parturients were of AMA. Among nulliparous women, AMA was significantly associated with a higher frequency of caesarean section both before labour (OR 2.26 with 95% CI 1.74-2.94), in labour (OR 1.44 with 95% CI 1.07-1.93), and more instrumental vaginal deliveries (ORs 1.49 with 95% CI 1.13-1.96). Among multiparous women, AMA was only significantly associated with a higher caesarean section rate before labour (ORs 1.42, 95% CI 1.19-1.69). There were no significant differences between the two age groups in the prevalence of other adverse obstetric outcomes and adverse perinatal outcomes.
Operative delivery is increased in AMA, including caesarean sections, as well as instrumental vaginal deliveries in nulliparous women. In multiparous women, however, only the rate of caesarean section before labour was increased. AMA had no significant effect on other adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes irrespective of parity.
Cites: Am J Perinatol. 2008 May;25(5):301-418437644
The aim of the study was to determine the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)/pre-eclampsia in a cohort of pregnant women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and known insulin sensitivity status. Pregnancies and neonatal outcome were recorded in a prospective cohort study comprising 29 non-insulin-resistant PCOS women, 23 insulin-resistant PCOS women and a control group of 355 women who had conceived after assisted reproduction. Hypertension, pre-eclampsia and GDM were recorded as well as pregnancy duration, method of delivery and birth weight. The frequency of hypertension was significantly elevated in PCOS women (11.5%) compared to controls (0.3%), p