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Arthropods and climate change - arctic challenges and opportunities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305348
Source
Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2020 10; 41:40-45
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
10-2020
Author
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Grenåvej 14, DK-8410 Rønde, Denmark. Electronic address: tth@bios.au.dk.
Source
Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2020 10; 41:40-45
Date
10-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Arthropods - physiology
Biodiversity
Climate change
Ecosystem
Temperature
Abstract
The harsh climate, limited human infrastructures, and basic autecological knowledge gaps represent substantial challenges for studying arthropods in the Arctic. At the same time, rapid climate change, low species diversity, and strong collaborative networks provide unique and underexploited Arctic opportunities for understanding species responses to environmental change and testing ecological theory. Here, I provide an overview of individual, population, and ecosystem level responses to climate change in Arctic arthropods. I focus on thermal performance, life history variation, population dynamics, community composition, diversity, and biotic interactions. The species-poor Arctic represents a unique opportunity for testing novel, automated arthropod monitoring methods. The Arctic can also potentially provide insights to further understand and mitigate the effects of climate change on arthropods worldwide.
PubMed ID
32674064 View in PubMed
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Circumpolar terrestrial arthropod monitoring: A review of ongoing activities, opportunities and challenges, with a focus on spiders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309552
Source
Ambio. 2020 Mar; 49(3):704-717
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Mar-2020
Author
Mark A K Gillespie
Matthias Alfredsson
Isabel C Barrio
Joe Bowden
Peter Convey
Stephen J Coulson
Lauren E Culler
Martin T Dahl
Kathryn M Daly
Seppo Koponen
Sarah Loboda
Yuri Marusik
Jonas P Sandström
Derek S Sikes
Jozef Slowik
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal Campus, 6851, Sogndal, Norway. markg@hvl.no.
Source
Ambio. 2020 Mar; 49(3):704-717
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Arthropods
Biodiversity
Longitudinal Studies
Spiders
Abstract
The terrestrial chapter of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) has the potential to bring international multi-taxon, long-term monitoring together, but detailed fundamental species information for Arctic arthropods lags far behind that for vertebrates and plants. In this paper, we demonstrate this major challenge to the CBMP by focussing on spiders (Order: Araneae) as an example group. We collate available circumpolar data on the distribution of spiders and highlight the current monitoring opportunities and identify the key knowledge gaps to address before monitoring can become efficient. We found spider data to be more complete than data for other taxa, but still variable in quality and availability between Arctic regions, highlighting the need for greater international co-operation for baseline studies and data sharing. There is also a dearth of long-term datasets for spiders and other arthropod groups from which to assess status and trends of biodiversity. Therefore, baseline studies should be conducted at all monitoring stations and we make recommendations for the development of the CBMP in relation to terrestrial arthropods more generally.
PubMed ID
31030417 View in PubMed
Less detail

Circumpolar terrestrial arthropod monitoring: A review of ongoing activities, opportunities and challenges, with a focus on spiders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299699
Source
Ambio. 2019 Apr 27; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Apr-27-2019
Author
Mark A K Gillespie
Matthias Alfredsson
Isabel C Barrio
Joe Bowden
Peter Convey
Stephen J Coulson
Lauren E Culler
Martin T Dahl
Kathryn M Daly
Seppo Koponen
Sarah Loboda
Yuri Marusik
Jonas P Sandström
Derek S Sikes
Jozef Slowik
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal Campus, 6851, Sogndal, Norway. markg@hvl.no.
Source
Ambio. 2019 Apr 27; :
Date
Apr-27-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
The terrestrial chapter of the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) has the potential to bring international multi-taxon, long-term monitoring together, but detailed fundamental species information for Arctic arthropods lags far behind that for vertebrates and plants. In this paper, we demonstrate this major challenge to the CBMP by focussing on spiders (Order: Araneae) as an example group. We collate available circumpolar data on the distribution of spiders and highlight the current monitoring opportunities and identify the key knowledge gaps to address before monitoring can become efficient. We found spider data to be more complete than data for other taxa, but still variable in quality and availability between Arctic regions, highlighting the need for greater international co-operation for baseline studies and data sharing. There is also a dearth of long-term datasets for spiders and other arthropod groups from which to assess status and trends of biodiversity. Therefore, baseline studies should be conducted at all monitoring stations and we make recommendations for the development of the CBMP in relation to terrestrial arthropods more generally.
PubMed ID
31030417 View in PubMed
Less detail

Demographic responses of a site-faithful and territorial predator to its fluctuating prey: long-tailed skuas and arctic lemmings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271628
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Mar;83(2):375-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Frédéric Barraquand
Toke T Høye
John-André Henden
Nigel G Yoccoz
Olivier Gilg
Niels M Schmidt
Benoît Sittler
Rolf A Ims
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Mar;83(2):375-87
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae - physiology
Charadriiformes - physiology
Demography
Food chain
Greenland
Models, Biological
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Territoriality
Abstract
Environmental variability, through interannual variation in food availability or climatic variables, is usually detrimental to population growth. It can even select for constancy in key life-history traits, though some exceptions are known. Changes in the level of environmental variability are therefore important to predict population growth or life-history evolution. Recently, several cyclic vole and lemming populations have shown large dynamical changes that might affect the demography or life-histories of rodent predators. Skuas constitute an important case study among rodent predators, because of their strongly saturating breeding productivity (they lay only two eggs) and high degree of site fidelity, in which they differ from nomadic predators raising large broods in good rodent years. This suggests that they cannot capitalize on lemming peaks to the same extent as nomadic predators and might be more vulnerable to collapses of rodent cycles. We develop a model for the population dynamics of long-tailed skuas feeding on lemmings to assess the demographic consequences of such variable and non-stationary prey dynamics, based on data collected in NE Greenland. The model shows that populations of long-tailed skua sustain well changes in lemming dynamics, including temporary collapses (e.g. 10 years). A high floater-to-breeder ratio emerges from rigid territorial behaviour and a long-life expectancy, which buffers the impact of adult abundance's decrease on the population reproductive output. The size of the floater compartment is affected by changes in both mean and coefficient of variation of lemming densities (but not cycle amplitude and periodicity per se). In Greenland, the average lemming density is below the threshold density required for successful breeding (including during normally cyclic periods). Due to Jensen's inequality, skuas therefore benefit from lemming variability; a positive effect of environmental variation. Long-tailed skua populations are strongly adapted to fluctuating lemming populations, an instance of demographic lability in the reproduction rate. They are also little affected by poor lemming periods, if there are enough floaters, or juveniles disperse to neighbouring populations. The status of Greenland skua populations therefore strongly depends upon floater numbers and juvenile movements, which are not known. This reveals a need to intensify colour-ringing efforts on the long-tailed skua at a circumpolar scale.
PubMed ID
24128282 View in PubMed
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Detrending phenological time series improves climate-phenology analyses and reveals evidence of plasticity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295656
Source
Ecology. 2017 Mar; 98(3):647-655
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Amy M Iler
David W Inouye
Niels M Schmidt
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 6B, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
Source
Ecology. 2017 Mar; 98(3):647-655
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Climate change
Colorado
Ecosystem
Flowers
Greenland
Phenotype
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
Time series have played a critical role in documenting how phenology responds to climate change. However, regressing phenological responses against climatic predictors involves the risk of finding potentially spurious climate-phenology relationships simply because both variables also change across years. Detrending by year is a way to address this issue. Additionally, detrending isolates interannual variation in phenology and climate, so that detrended climate-phenology relationships can represent statistical evidence of phenotypic plasticity. Using two flowering phenology time series from Colorado, USA and Greenland, we detrend flowering date and two climate predictors known to be important in these ecosystems: temperature and snowmelt date. In Colorado, all climate-phenology relationships persist after detrending. In Greenland, 75% of the temperature-phenology relationships disappear after detrending (three of four species). At both sites, the relationships that persist after detrending suggest that plasticity is a major component of sensitivity of flowering phenology to climate. Finally, simulations that created different strengths of correlations among year, climate, and phenology provide broader support for our two empirical case studies. This study highlights the utility of detrending to determine whether phenology is related to a climate variable in observational data sets. Applying this as a best practice will increase our understanding of phenological responses to climatic variation and change.
PubMed ID
27984645 View in PubMed
Less detail

Detrending phenological time series improves climate-phenology analyses and reveals evidence of plasticity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278065
Source
Ecology. 2016 Dec 16;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-16-2016
Author
Amy M Iler
David W Inouye
Niels M Schmidt
Toke T Høye
Source
Ecology. 2016 Dec 16;
Date
Dec-16-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Time series have played a critical role in documenting how phenology responds to climate change. However, regressing phenological responses against climatic predictors involves the risk of finding potentially spurious climate-phenology relationships simply because both variables also change across years. Detrending by year is a way to address this issue. Additionally, detrending isolates interannual variation in phenology and climate, so that detrended climate-phenology relationships can represent statistical evidence of phenotypic plasticity. Using two flowering phenology time series from Colorado, USA and Greenland, we detrend flowering date and two climate predictors known to be important in these ecosystems: temperature and snowmelt date. In Colorado, all climate-phenology relationships persist after detrending. In Greenland, 75% of the temperature-phenology relationships disappear after detrending (3 of 4 species). At both sites, the relationships that persist after detrending suggest that plasticity is a major component of sensitivity of flowering phenology to climate. Finally, simulations that created different strengths of correlations among year, climate, and phenology provide broader support for our two empirical case studies. This study highlights the utility of detrending to determine whether phenology is related to a climate variable in observational datasets. Applying this as a best practice will increase our understanding of phenological responses to climatic variation and change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
27984645 View in PubMed
Less detail

Differential arthropod responses to warming are altering the structure of Arctic communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291801
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2018 Apr; 5(4):171503
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Niels M Schmidt
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Duke University, Box 30338, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2018 Apr; 5(4):171503
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The Arctic is experiencing some of the fastest rates of warming on the planet. Although many studies have documented responses to such warming by individual species, the idiosyncratic nature of these findings has prevented us from extrapolating them to community-level predictions. Here, we leverage the availability of a long-term dataset from Zackenberg, Greenland (593?700 specimens collected between 1996 and 2014), to investigate how climate parameters influence the abundance of different arthropod groups and overall community composition. We find that variation in mean seasonal temperatures, winter duration and winter freeze-thaw events is correlated with taxon-specific and habitat-dependent changes in arthropod abundances. In addition, we find that arthropod communities have exhibited compositional changes consistent with the expected effects of recent shifts towards warmer active seasons and fewer freeze-thaw events in NE Greenland. Changes in community composition are up to five times more extreme in drier than wet habitats, with herbivores and parasitoids generally increasing in abundance, while the opposite is true for surface detritivores. These results suggest that species interactions and food web dynamics are changing in the Arctic, with potential implications for key ecosystem processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and primary productivity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29765633 View in PubMed
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Earlier springs enable high-Arctic wolf spiders to produce a second clutch.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305487
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2020 06 24; 287(1929):20200982
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-24-2020
Author
Toke T Høye
Jean-Claude Kresse
Amanda M Koltz
Joseph J Bowden
Author Affiliation
Arctic Research Centre and Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Grenåvej 14, DK-8410 Rønde, Denmark.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2020 06 24; 287(1929):20200982
Date
06-24-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate
Clutch Size
Female
Greenland
Reproduction
Seasons
Spiders - physiology
Abstract
Spiders at southern latitudes commonly produce multiple clutches, but this has not been observed at high latitudes where activity seasons are much shorter. Yet the timing of snowmelt is advancing in the Arctic, which may allow some species to produce an additional clutch. To determine if this is already happening, we used specimens of the wolf spider Pardosa glacialis caught by pitfall traps from the long-term (1996-2014) monitoring programme at Zackenberg, NE Greenland. We dissected individual egg sacs and counted the number of eggs and partially developed juveniles, and measured carapace width of the mothers. Upon the discovery of a bimodal frequency distribution of clutch sizes, as is typical for wolf spiders at lower latitudes producing a second clutch, we assigned egg sacs to being a first or second clutch depending on clutch size. We tested whether the median capture date differed among first and second clutches, whether clutch size was correlated to female size, and whether the proportion of second clutches produced within a season was related to climate. We found that assigned second clutches appeared significantly later in the season than first clutches. In years with earlier snowmelt, first clutches occurred earlier and the proportion of second clutches produced was larger. Likely, females produce their first clutch earlier in those years which allow them time to produce another clutch. Clutch size for first clutches was correlated to female size, while this was not the case for second clutches. Our results provide the first evidence for Arctic invertebrates producing additional clutches in response to warming. This could be a common but overlooked phenomenon due to the challenges associated with long-term collection of life-history data in the Arctic. Moreover, given that wolf spiders are a widely distributed, important tundra predator, we may expect to see population and food web consequences of their increased reproductive rates.
PubMed ID
32576114 View in PubMed
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Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279042
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-11-2017
Author
Janet Prevéy
Mark Vellend
Nadja Rüger
Robert D Hollister
Anne D Bjorkman
Isla H Myers-Smith
Sarah C Elmendorf
Karin Clark
Elisabeth J Cooper
Bo Elberling
Anna Maria Fosaa
Gregory H R Henry
Toke T Høye
Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir
Kari Klanderud
Esther Lévesque
Marguerite Mauritz
Ulf Molau
Susan M Natali
Steven F Oberbauer
Zoe A Panchen
Eric Post
Sabine B Rumpf
Niels M Schmidt
Ted Schuur
Phillip R Semenchuk
Tiffany Troxler
Jeffrey M Welker
Christian Rixen
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan 11;
Date
Jan-11-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher-latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering were more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient, and suggest the possibility of convergence in flowering times and therefore an increase in gene flow across latitudes as the climate warms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
28079308 View in PubMed
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High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266816
Source
Biol Lett. 2015 Oct;11(10)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Joseph J Bowden
Anne Eskildsen
Rikke R Hansen
Kent Olsen
Carolyn M Kurle
Toke T Høye
Source
Biol Lett. 2015 Oct;11(10)
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500 individuals collected annually between 1996 and 2013 from Zackenberg, Greenland and found that wing length significantly decreased at a similar rate in both species in response to warmer summers. Body size is strongly related to dispersal capacity and fecundity and our results suggest that these Arctic species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change.
PubMed ID
26445981 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.