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Embryonic Crude Oil Exposure Impairs Growth and Lipid Allocation in a Keystone Arctic Forage Fish.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308938
Source
iScience. 2019 Sep 27; 19:1101-1113
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-27-2019
Author
Benjamin J Laurel
Louise A Copeman
Paul Iseri
Mara L Spencer
Greg Hutchinson
Trond Nordtug
Carey E Donald
Sonnich Meier
Sarah E Allan
Daryle T Boyd
Gina M Ylitalo
James R Cameron
Barbara L French
Tiffany L Linbo
Nathaniel L Scholz
John P Incardona
Author Affiliation
Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Newport, OR, USA. Electronic address: ben.laurel@noaa.gov.
Source
iScience. 2019 Sep 27; 19:1101-1113
Date
Sep-27-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
As Arctic ice recedes, future oil spills pose increasing risk to keystone species and the ecosystems they support. We show that Polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an energy-rich forage fish for marine mammals, seabirds, and other fish, are highly sensitive to developmental impacts of crude oil. Transient oil exposures =300 µg/L during mid-organogenesis disrupted the normal patterning of the jaw as well as the formation and function of the heart, in a manner expected to be lethal to post-hatch larvae. More importantly, we found that exposure to lower levels of oil caused a dysregulation of lipid metabolism and growth that persisted in morphologically normal juveniles. As lipid content is critical for overwinter survival and recruitment, we anticipate Polar cod losses following Arctic oil spills as a consequence of both near-term and delayed mortality. These losses will likely influence energy flow within Arctic food webs in ways that are as-yet poorly understood.
PubMed ID
31536959 View in PubMed
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Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275237
Source
Sci Rep. 2015;5:13499
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
John P Incardona
Mark G Carls
Larry Holland
Tiffany L Linbo
David H Baldwin
Mark S Myers
Karen A Peck
Mark Tagal
Stanley D Rice
Nathaniel L Scholz
Source
Sci Rep. 2015;5:13499
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Cardiotoxicity
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Fishes
Heart Defects, Congenital - etiology
Myocardium - metabolism - pathology
Petroleum - adverse effects
Salmon
Abstract
The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26345607 View in PubMed
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