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6 records – page 1 of 1.

Community structural instability, anomie, imitation and adolescent suicidal behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92560
Source
J Adolesc. 2009 Apr;32(2):233-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Thorlindsson Thorolfur
Bernburg Jón Gunnar
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. thorotho@hi.is
Source
J Adolesc. 2009 Apr;32(2):233-45
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anomie
Female
Humans
Imitative Behavior
Linear Models
Male
Questionnaires
Social Behavior
Social Environment
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.
PubMed ID
18692236 View in PubMed
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The neighborhood effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88942
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jul;69(1):129-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Bernburg Jon Gunnar
Thorlindsson Thorolfur
Sigfusdottir Inga D
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. bernburg@hi.is
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jul;69(1):129-37
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In the current paper, we argue that the neighborhood-level of disrupted family processes (weak social ties to parents and coercive family interaction) should have a contextual effect on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), because adolescents living in neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are prevalent should be more likely to associate with deviant (substance using) peers. We use nested data on 5491 Icelandic adolescents aged 15 and 16 years in 83 neighborhoods to examine the neighborhood-contextual effects of disrupted family processes on adolescent substance use (cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and lifetime cannabis use), that is, whether neighborhoods in which disrupted family processes are common have more adolescent substance use, even after partialling out the individual-level effects of disrupted family processes on substance use. As predicted, we find that the neighborhood-levels of disrupted family processes have significant, contextual effects on all the indicators of substance use, and that association with substance using peers mediates a part of these contextual effects. The findings illustrate the limitation of an individual-level approach to adolescent substance use.
PubMed ID
19464096 View in PubMed
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Peer groups and substance use: examining the direct and interactive effect of leisure activity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80629
Source
Adolescence. 2006;41(162):321-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Thorlindsson Thorolfur
Bernburg Jon Gunnar
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Science, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. thorotho@hi.is
Source
Adolescence. 2006;41(162):321-39
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Leisure Activities
Life Style
Male
Peer Group
Regression Analysis
Societies
Sports
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic adolescents, exploring the variations in the use of alcohol and illegal drugs among three different patterns of leisure activity, controlling for parental ties and school commitment. The findings show that alcohol and substance use varies significantly across the three leisure patterns. Moreover, it was found that the well-known relationship between adolescent substance use and having substance-using friends is significantly contingent on the type of leisure pattern. Our findings suggest that it is important to take into account different peer leisure activities in order to understand adolescent substance use. Finally, we discuss the implications of the findings for prevention work with adolescents.
PubMed ID
16981620 View in PubMed
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The spreading of suicidal behavior: The contextual effect of community household poverty on adolescent suicidal behavior and the mediating role of suicide suggestion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91195
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jan;68(2):380-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Bernburg Jon Gunnar
Thorlindsson Thorolfur
Sigfusdottir Inga D
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. bernburg@hi.is
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jan;68(2):380-9
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Data Collection
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Iceland
Male
Poverty
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Residential Mobility
Suicide - psychology
Abstract
Despite the longstanding interest of social researchers in the social factors that influence suicide and suicidal behavior, multilevel research on this topic has been limited. Using nested survey data on 5331 Icelandic adolescents (born in 1990 and 1991) in 83 school-communities, the current study examines the contextual effect of community household poverty on adolescent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation and suicide attempt). The findings show that the concentration of household poverty in the school-community has a significant, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. Furthermore, we test an "epidemic" explanation for this effect, examining the mediating role of suicide suggestion (contact with suicidal others). We find that suicide suggestion mediates a substantial part of the contextual effect of community household poverty on suicide attempt, while mediation is modest in the case of suicide ideation. The findings indicate that community household poverty increases the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior in part because communities in which household poverty is common entail a higher risk for adolescents of associating with suicidal others. The study demonstrates how the concentration of individual problems can have macrolevel implications, creating social mechanisms that cannot be reduced to the circumstances or characteristics of individuals.
PubMed ID
19019522 View in PubMed
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Substance use prevention for adolescents: the Icelandic Model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90862
Source
Health Promot Int. 2009 Mar;24(1):16-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Sigfúsdóttir Inga Dóra
Thorlindsson Thorolfur
Kristjánsson Alfgeir Logi
Roe Kathleen M
Allegrante John P
Author Affiliation
Centre for Social Research and Analysis, School of Health and Education, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland. ingadora@ru.is
Source
Health Promot Int. 2009 Mar;24(1):16-25
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Community Health Planning - methods - organization & administration
Cooperative Behavior
Evidence-Based Medicine
Family
Female
Health Promotion - methods - organization & administration
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Models, organizational
Peer Group
Prevalence
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
School Health Services
Social Support
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs have shown that adolescent substance use is a growing problem in western and particularly Eastern European countries. This paper describes the development, implementation and results of the Icelandic Model of Adolescent Substance Use Prevention. The Icelandic Model is a theoretically grounded, evidence-based approach to community adolescent substance use prevention that has grown out of collaboration between policy makers, behavioural scientists, field-based practitioners and community residents in Iceland. The intervention focuses on reducing known risk factors for substance use, while strengthening a broad range of parental, school and community protective factors. Annual cross-sectional surveys demonstrate the impact of the intervention on substance use among the population of 14- to 16-year-old Icelandic adolescents. The annual data from two cohorts of over 7000 adolescents (>81% response rate) show that the proportions of those who reported being drunk during the last 30 days, smoking one cigarette or more per day and having tried hashish once all declined steadily from 1997 to 2007. The proportions of adolescents who reported spending time with their parents and that their parents knew with whom they were spending their time increased substantially. Other community protective factors also showed positive changes. Although these data suggest that this adolescent substance use prevention approach successfully strengthened a broad range of parental, school and community protective factors, the evidence of its impact on reducing substance use needs to be considered in light of the correlational data on which these observations are based.
PubMed ID
19074445 View in PubMed
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Trends in prevalence of substance use among Icelandic adolescents, 1995-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85634
Source
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2008;3:12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Sigfusdottir Inga D
Kristjansson Alfgeir L
Thorlindsson Thorolfur
Allegrante John P
Author Affiliation
Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, School of Health and Education, Reykjavik University, Ofanleiti 2, 103 Reykjavik, Iceland. ingadora@ru.is
Source
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2008;3:12
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Prevalence
Sentinel Surveillance
Sex Factors
Social Environment
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Adolescent substance use continues to be of great global public health concern in many countries with advanced economies. Previous research has shown that substance use among 15-16 year-old-youth has increased in many European countries in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine trends in prevalence of daily smoking, alcohol intoxication, and illicit substance use among Icelandic adolescents. METHODS: Repeated-measures, population-based cross-sectional surveys of between 3,100 and 3,900 10th-grade students who participated in the annual Youth of Iceland studies were analyzed, with response rates of between 80% and 90%. RESULTS: The prevalence of daily smoking, alcohol intoxication, and illicit substance use was at a peak in 1998, with almost 23% having reported daily smoking, 42% having reported becoming intoxicated at least once during the last 30 days, and over 17% having used hashish once or more often in their lifetime. By 2006, daily smoking had declined to 12%, having become intoxicated once or more often during the last 30 days to 25%, and having ever used hashish declined to 9%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of substance use among Icelandic 10th graders declined substantially from 1995 to 2006. Proportions of adolescents who smoke cigarettes, had become intoxicated during the last 30 days, as well as those admitting to hashish use all decreased to a great deal during the period under study. The decline in prevalence of adolescent substance use in Iceland is plausibly the result of local community collaboration where researchers, policy makers and practitioners who work with young people have combined their efforts.
PubMed ID
18507853 View in PubMed
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6 records – page 1 of 1.