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Adipose tissue trans-fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105926
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 14;111(7):1283-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-14-2014
Author
Camilla P Hansen
Tina L Berentzen
Jane N Østergaard
Christina C Dahm
Lars I Hellgren
Erik B Schmidt
Anne Tjønneland
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Kim Overvad
Marianne U Jakobsen
Author Affiliation
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 14;111(7):1283-91
Date
Apr-14-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue, White - metabolism
Biological Markers - metabolism
Biopsy, Needle
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dietary Fats - adverse effects - metabolism
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linoleic Acids, Conjugated - adverse effects - metabolism
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - etiology - metabolism - pathology
Oleic Acids - adverse effects - metabolism
Questionnaires
Registries
Trans Fatty Acids - adverse effects - metabolism
Waist Circumference
Weight Gain
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1t), 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid (18:1 ?11t) and rumenic acid (18:2 ?9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18:1t was 1.52% (90% central range 0.98, 2.19) in men and 1.47% (1.01, 2.19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18:1t, 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population.
PubMed ID
24286469 View in PubMed
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Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98488
Source
PLoS One. 2009;4(12):e8450
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Lise Aksglaede
Anders Juul
Lina W Olsen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Growth and Reproduction, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. lise.aksglaede@rh.regionh.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2009;4(12):e8450
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Aging - physiology
Body Height
Body mass index
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - physiopathology
Puberty - physiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI) and pubertal timing, as assessed by age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and at peak height velocity (PHV), and the secular trend of pubertal timing given the prepubertal BMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual measurements of height and weight were available in all children born from 1930 to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen municipality; 156,835 children fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and PHV. The effect of prepubertal BMI at age seven on these markers of pubertal development within and between birth cohorts was analyzed. BMI at seven years was significantly inversely associated with age at OGS and PHV. Dividing the children into five levels of prepubertal BMI, we found a similar secular trend toward earlier maturation in all BMI groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The heavier both boys and girls were at age seven, the earlier they entered puberty. Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend.
PubMed ID
20041184 View in PubMed
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Alcoholic beverage preference and risk of becoming a heavy drinker.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10029
Source
Epidemiology. 2002 Mar;13(2):127-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2002
Author
Majken K Jensen
Anne T Andersen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Ulrik Becker
Thorkil Thorsen
Morten Grønbaek
Author Affiliation
Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre at the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Epidemiology. 2002 Mar;13(2):127-32
Date
Mar-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholism - prevention & control
Beer
Denmark
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Wine
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages. METHODS: In a longitudinal study of 10,330 moderate drinkers from Copenhagen, Denmark, we used logistic regression analyses to address the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker (above 14 and 21 drinks per week, respectively, for women and above 21 and 35 drinks per week for men) according to preference of wine, beer, or spirits. RESULTS: Compared with those who preferred wine, those who preferred beer tended to have increased risk of becoming heavy and excessive drinkers. Women who preferred beer had odds ratios of 1.14 (95% CI = 0.87-1.50) for becoming heavy drinkers and 1.50 (95% CI = 0.93-2.43) for becoming excessive drinkers. For men who preferred beer the ORs were 1.16 (95% CI = 0.84-1.58) and 1.81 (95% CI = 0.85-3.82). CONCLUSION: The finding that moderate wine drinkers appear to be at lower risk of becoming heavy and excessive drinkers may add to the explanation of the reported beverage-specific differences in morbidity and mortality.
Notes
Comment In: Epidemiology. 2002 Mar;13(2):120-211880749
PubMed ID
11880751 View in PubMed
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[A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the Danish population]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9357
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2004 Oct 11;166(42):3718-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-11-2004

Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137422
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e15745
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Sofia I Iqbal Kring
John Barefoot
Beverly H Brummett
Stephen H Boyle
Ilene C Siegler
Søren Toubro
Torben Hansen
Arne Astrup
Oluf Pedersen
Redford B Williams
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark. si@ipm.regionh.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e15745
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Apolipoproteins E - genetics
Blood glucose
Body Weights and Measures
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Genome-Wide Association Study - methods
Genotype
Humans
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Male
Metabolism - genetics
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - genetics
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.
Obese young men (n = 475, BMI = 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected control group (n = 709) identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years) where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR) of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.
The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17]), waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17]) in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87]), serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91]) and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08]) in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41]) and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I); OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85]) in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.
The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401 TT-genotype is associated with an adverse metabolic profile in a population of psychologically stressed Danish men.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21283811 View in PubMed
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Being an only or last-born child increases later risk of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116078
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56357
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Line K Haugaard
Teresa A Ajslev
Esther Zimmermann
Lars Ängquist
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg University Hospitals, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56357
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Birth Order
Confidence Intervals
Denmark - epidemiology
Family Characteristics
Humans
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Only Child
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies have suggested that number of siblings and birth order is associated with obesity. However, studies combining these exposures are needed. This study aimed at investigating obesity in children and young adults in regard to different combinations of family size and birth order.
Two cohorts selected from the general population were investigated: The Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) and a Draft Board (DB) sample with measured heights and weights in childhood (age 13 years) and young adulthood (age 19 years), respectively. Information on birth order, number of siblings, and relevant covariates were available on 29 327 children, as well as on 323 obese young men and 575 randomly selected controls of young men representing approximately 58 000. The relation between number of siblings and birth order, respectively, and having a Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score above or equal to the 95(th) percentile in childhood or having a BMI of at least 31.00 kg/m(2) in young adulthood was analysed using logistic regression analyses adjusted for relevant confounders.
Only children had significantly higher odds of obesity both in childhood and in young adulthood compared with children with siblings, odds ratio (OR)?=1.44 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.26-1.66) and OR=1.76 (95% CI: 1.18-2.61), respectively. No association between first-born status and obesity was found. The OR of last-born children being obese was also significantly increased in childhood, e.g. OR=1.93 (95% CI: 1.09-3.43) of obesity if last-born in a family of four children. This was not found in young adulthood. Additionally, higher spacing to previous sibling (average 1872 vs. 1303 days; p=0.026 in four children families) was observed in obese last-born compared to non-obese last-born children.
Being an only or last-born child is associated with obesity. These associations may provide leads to targeted prevention of obesity in children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23437116 View in PubMed
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Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117874
Source
Obes Facts. 2012;5(6):881-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Jiong Li
Jørn Olsen
Mogens Vestergaard
Carsten Obel
Jennifer L Baker
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. jl@soci.au.dk
Source
Obes Facts. 2012;5(6):881-9
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bereavement
Body mass index
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Obesity - etiology - psychology
Overweight
Parental Death
Parents
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
The rise in the occurrence of childhood obesity during the last decades in many populations indicates an important role of environmental exposures, which may operate very early in life. We aimed to examine the association between bereavement during the first 6 years of life, as a stress indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children.
We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children.
Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age. Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age.
This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood.
PubMed ID
23258219 View in PubMed
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Bioinformatics-driven identification and examination of candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136831
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16542
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Karina Banasik
Johanne M Justesen
Malene Hornbak
Nikolaj T Krarup
Anette P Gjesing
Camilla H Sandholt
Thomas S Jensen
Niels Grarup
Asa Andersson
Torben Jørgensen
Daniel R Witte
Annelli Sandbæk
Torsten Lauritzen
Bernard Thorens
Søren Brunak
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark. kabs@hagedorn.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16542
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Computational Biology - methods
Data Mining
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Fatty Liver - genetics
Humans
Metabolic Syndrome X - genetics
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Protein Binding
Quantitative Trait Loci
Abstract
Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes.
By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein-protein interaction transferal, and information on liver protein expression a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and from this a smaller isolated interactome was identified. Five genes from this interactome were selected for genetic analysis. Twenty-one tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which captured all common variation in these genes were genotyped in 10,196 Danes, and analyzed for association with NAFLD-related quantitative traits, type 2 diabetes (T2D), central obesity, and WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS).
273 genes were included in the protein-protein interaction analysis and EHHADH, ECHS1, HADHA, HADHB, and ACADL were selected for further examination. A total of 10 nominal statistical significant associations (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
21339799 View in PubMed
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Birthweight and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136987
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;40(3):647-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Kari R Risnes
Lars J Vatten
Jennifer L Baker
Karen Jameson
Ulla Sovio
Eero Kajantie
Merete Osler
Ruth Morley
Markus Jokela
Rebecca C Painter
Valter Sundh
Geir W Jacobsen
Johan G Eriksson
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Michael B Bracken
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. kari.risnes@ntnu.no
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;40(3):647-61
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Birth weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death - trends
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mortality - trends
Neoplasms - mortality
Norway
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Abstract
Small birth size may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), whereas large birth size may predict increased risk of obesity and some cancers. The net effect of birth size on long-term mortality has only been assessed in individual studies, with conflicting results.
The Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for conducting and reporting meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. We retrieved 22 studies that assessed the association between birthweight and adult mortality from all causes, CVD or cancer. The studies were systematically reviewed and those reporting hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per kilogram (kg) increase in birthweight were included in generic inverse variance meta-analyses.
For all-cause mortality, 36,834 deaths were included and the results showed a 6% lower risk (adjusted HR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) per kg higher birthweight for men and women combined. For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding inverse association was stronger (HR?=?0.88, 95% CI: 0.85-0.91). For cancer mortality, HR per kg higher birthweight was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07-1.19) for men and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98-1.10) for women (P(interaction)?=?0.03). Residual confounding could not be eliminated, but is unlikely to account for the main findings.
These results show an inverse but moderate association of birthweight with adult mortality from all-causes and a stronger inverse association with cardiovascular mortality. For men, higher birthweight was strongly associated with increased risk of cancer deaths. The findings suggest that birthweight can be a useful indicator of processes that influence long-term health.
PubMed ID
21324938 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Cancer. 2007 Jul 15;110(2):412-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2007
Author
Martin Ahlgren
Jan Wohlfahrt
Lina W Olsen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Mads Melbye
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. mag@ssi.dk
Source
Cancer. 2007 Jul 15;110(2):412-9
Date
Jul-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
It is well established that prenatal biologic processes are important for the development of some childhood cancers, whereas less is known regarding their influence on adult cancer risk. High birth weight has been associated with risk of breast cancer, whereas studies of other specific cancers and all cancers together have been less conclusive.
The authors established a cohort of more than 200,000 men and women who were born between 1936 and 1975. Birth weights were obtained from school health records and information concerning cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry. Follow-up was performed between April 1, 1968 and December 31, 2003. During 6,975,553 person-years of follow-up, a total of 12,540 primary invasive cancers were diagnosed.
Analyses of site-specific cancers revealed that the majority of cancers had a positive linear association with birth weight. Departures from a positive linear association were found to be statistically significant for cancers of the pancreas and bladder, which demonstrated a V-shaped association, and testicular cancer, which demonstrated an inverse association with birth weight. Excluding these 3 exceptions, the trends for the individual cancer sites were not heterogeneous, and the overall trend was a relative risk of 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.11) per 1000-g increase in birth weight. This trend was the same in men and women and in all age groups.
A 7% increase in cancer risk was observed per 1000-g increase in birth weight. Few cancers demonstrated a nonlinear association with birth weight, and testicular cancer was found to be negatively associated with birth weight. The authors hypothesized that the biologic explanation behind the association between birth weight and cancer at different sites should be sought in a common pathway.
PubMed ID
17538980 View in PubMed
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