Skip header and navigation

Refine By

11 records – page 1 of 2.

Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281203
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154356
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Michael D Tillotson
Thomas P Quinn
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154356
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animal Migration
Animals
Climate
Climate change
Ecosystem
Fisheries
Fresh Water
Geography
Least-Squares Analysis
Life Cycle Stages
Models, Theoretical
Regression Analysis
Rivers
Salmon - physiology
Species Specificity
Temperature
Water - chemistry
Abstract
Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change.
Notes
Cites: Nature. 2003 Jan 2;421(6918):37-4212511946
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 27;100(11):6564-812743372
Cites: Nature. 2004 Apr 29;428(6986):932-515118724
Cites: Nature. 2010 Jun 3;465(7298):609-1220520713
Cites: Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011 Jan 15;170(2):290-820627104
Cites: Heredity (Edinb). 2011 Mar;106(3):421-3721224878
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jan;20(1):38-5023996901
Cites: Science. 2011 Nov 4;334(6056):652-522053045
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2012;4:11-3722457967
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e5380723326513
Cites: J Anim Ecol. 2013 Jan;82(1):131-4422862682
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2013 May;16 Suppl 1:58-7123679010
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2013 Sep;19(9):2688-9723606580
Cites: Nature. 2011 Feb 24;470(7335):479-8521350480
PubMed ID
27123845 View in PubMed
Less detail

Can intense predation by bears exert a depensatory effect on recruitment in a Pacific salmon population?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261318
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Oct;176(2):445-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Thomas P Quinn
Curry J Cunningham
Jessica Randall
Ray Hilborn
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Oct;176(2):445-56
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Ecosystem
Fisheries
Models, Biological
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Reproduction
Salmon
Ursidae
Abstract
It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult to demonstrate in the field. To test for such depensation, we measured the spawner-recruit relationship over five decades for a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population in Alaska breeding in high-quality, unaltered habitat. Twenty-five years of detailed estimates of predation by brown bears, Ursus arctos, revealed strong density dependence in predation rate; the bears killed ca. 80% of the salmon in years of low salmon spawning abundance. Nevertheless, the reconstructed spawner-recruit relationship, adjusted to include salmon intercepted in the commercial fishery, provided no evidence of demographic depensation. That is, in years when few salmon returned and the great majority were killed by bears, the few that spawned were successful enough that the population remained highly productive, even when those killed by bears were included as potential spawners. We conclude that the high quality of breeding habitat at this site and the productive nature of semelparous Pacific salmon allowed this population to avoid the hypothesized depressed recruitment from depensatory processes expected at low density. The observed lack of demographic depensation is encouraging from a conservation standpoint because it implies that depleted populations may have the potential to rebound successfully given suitable spawning and rearing habitat, even in the presence of strong predation pressure.
PubMed ID
25154755 View in PubMed
Less detail

Improved viability of populations with diverse life-history portfolios.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99465
Source
Biol Lett. 2010 Jun 23;6(3):382-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-23-2010
Author
Correigh M Greene
Jason E Hall
Kimberly R Guilbault
Thomas P Quinn
Author Affiliation
Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112, USA. correigh.greene@noaa.gov
Source
Biol Lett. 2010 Jun 23;6(3):382-6
Date
Jun-23-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animal Migration - physiology
Animals
Genetic Variation - physiology
Life Cycle Stages - physiology
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Population Surveillance
Reproduction - physiology
Salmon - physiology
Sexual Behavior, Animal - physiology
Abstract
A principle shared by both economists and ecologists is that a diversified portfolio spreads risk, but this idea has little empirical support in the field of population biology. We found that population growth rates (recruits per spawner) and life-history diversity as measured by variation in freshwater and ocean residency were negatively correlated across short time periods (one to two generations), but positively correlated at longer time periods, in nine Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations. Further, the relationship between variation in growth rate and life-history diversity was consistently negative. These findings strongly suggest that life-history diversity can both increase production and buffer population fluctuations, particularly over long time periods. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of biocomplexity beyond spatio-temporal aspects of populations, and suggest that maintaining diverse life-history portfolios of populations may be crucial for their resilience to unfavourable conditions like habitat loss and climate change.
PubMed ID
20007162 View in PubMed
Less detail

Independent lineages in a common environment: the roles of determinism and contingency in shaping the migration timing of even- versus odd-year pink salmon over broad spatial and temporal scales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310308
Source
Ecol Lett. 2019 Oct; 22(10):1547-1556
Publication Type
Letter
Date
Oct-2019
Author
Krista B Oke
Curry J Cunningham
Thomas P Quinn
Andrew P Hendry
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology and Redpath Museum, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6, Canada.
Source
Ecol Lett. 2019 Oct; 22(10):1547-1556
Date
Oct-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Keywords
Alaska
Animal Migration
Animals
Breeding
British Columbia
Environment
Models, Biological
Rivers
Salmon
Time Factors
Abstract
Studies of parallel evolution are seldom able to disentangle the influence of cryptic environmental variation from that of evolutionary history; whereas the unique life history of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) presents an opportunity to do so. All pink salmon mature at age two and die after breeding. Hence, pink salmon bred in even years are completely reproductively isolated from those bred in odd years, even if the two lineages bred in same location. We used time series (mean = 7 years, maximum = 74 years) of paired even- and odd-year populations from 36 rivers spanning over 2000 km to explore parallelism in migration timing, a trait with a strong genetic basis. Migration timing was highly parallel, being determined almost entirely by local environmental differences among rivers. Interestingly, interannual changes in migration timing different somewhat between lineages. Overall, our findings indicate very strong determinism, with only a minor contribution of contingency.
PubMed ID
31290586 View in PubMed
Less detail

Landscape Genetics of Schistocephalus solidus Parasites in Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261717
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122307
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
C Grace Sprehn
Michael J Blum
Thomas P Quinn
David C Heins
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122307
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The nature of gene flow in parasites with complex life cycles is poorly understood, particularly when intermediate and definitive hosts have contrasting movement potential. We examined whether the fine-scale population genetic structure of the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reflects the habits of intermediate threespine stickleback hosts or those of its definitive hosts, semi-aquatic piscivorous birds, to better understand complex host-parasite interactions. Seventeen lakes in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska were sampled, including ten in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, five on the Kenai Peninsula, and two in the Bristol Bay drainage. We analyzed sequence variation across a 759 bp region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I region for 1,026 S. solidus individuals sampled from 2009-2012. We also analyzed allelic variation at 8 microsatellite loci for 1,243 individuals. Analysis of mtDNA haplotype and microsatellite genotype variation recovered evidence of significant population genetic structure within S. solidus. Host, location, and year were factors in structuring observed genetic variation. Pairwise measures revealed significant differentiation among lakes, including a pattern of isolation-by-distance. Bayesian analysis identified three distinct genotypic clusters in the study region, little admixture within hosts and lakes, and a shift in genotype frequencies over time. Evidence of fine-scale population structure in S. solidus indicates that movement of its vagile, definitive avian hosts has less influence on gene flow than expected based solely on movement potential. Observed patterns of genetic variation may reflect genetic drift, behaviors of definitive hosts that constrain dispersal, life history of intermediate hosts, and adaptive specificity of S. solidus to intermediate host genotype.
Notes
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2007 May;10(5):418-3417498141
Cites: Evolution. 2006 Mar;60(3):553-6216637500
Cites: Parasite. 2008 Sep;15(3):439-4318814719
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2008 Dec;23(12):678-8518947899
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Jun 12;364(1523):1533-4219414468
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2009 Jun 1;25(11):1451-219346325
Cites: Parasitology. 2010 Mar;137(3):411-2419835650
Cites: Parasitology. 2010 Sep;137(11):1681-620550751
Cites: Infect Genet Evol. 2010 Dec;10(8):1271-720804859
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e2250521811623
Cites: Mol Ecol. 2012 Jan;21(1):207-1722118193
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Jul;15(7):723-3122583762
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2012 Oct 1;28(19):2537-922820204
Cites: Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:3323390985
Cites: Mol Ecol. 2000 Nov;9(11):1926-711091333
Cites: Genetics. 2000 Jun;155(2):945-5910835412
Cites: Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014 Jan;36(1):130-4024176687
Cites: Parasitology. 2001;123 Suppl:S27-4011769289
Cites: Evolution. 2004 Jan;58(1):198-20215058733
Cites: Parasitology. 1966 Nov;56(4):657-645971584
Cites: Parasitology. 1971 Dec;63(3):389-4065167773
Cites: Heredity (Edinb). 1986 Aug;57 ( Pt 1):113-73744875
Cites: Heredity (Edinb). 1986 Aug;57 ( Pt 1):67-743744877
Cites: Science. 1987 May 15;236(4803):787-923576198
Cites: J Parasitol. 1995 Jun;81(3):395-4037776124
Cites: Genetics. 1995 Nov;141(3):1007-148582607
Cites: Parasitology. 1997 Sep;115 ( Pt 3):317-249300470
Cites: Parasitology. 1999 Sep;119 ( Pt 3):295-30210503255
Cites: Evolution. 2004 Oct;58(10):2319-3115562693
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Dec 22;271(1557):2559-6815615681
Cites: Evolution. 2005 Feb;59(2):296-30315807416
Cites: Mol Ecol. 2005 Jul;14(8):2247-5715969711
Cites: Int J Parasitol. 2008 Oct;38(12):1465-7918513725
PubMed ID
25874710 View in PubMed
Less detail

Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266179
Source
Ecol Evol. 2015 Aug;5(15):3031-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Shannan L May-McNally
Thomas P Quinn
Eric B Taylor
Source
Ecol Evol. 2015 Aug;5(15):3031-45
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (
PubMed ID
26356310 View in PubMed
Less detail

Managing salmon for wildlife: Do fisheries limit salmon consumption by bears in small Alaskan streams?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307576
Source
Ecol Appl. 2020 04; 30(3):e02061
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2020
Author
Alexandra E Lincoln
Ray Hilborn
Aaron J Wirsing
Thomas P Quinn
Author Affiliation
School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, 1122 Northeast Boat Street, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.
Source
Ecol Appl. 2020 04; 30(3):e02061
Date
04-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Ecosystem
Fisheries
Humans
Rivers
Salmon
Ursidae
Abstract
Ecosystem-based management requires consideration of overlapping resource use between humans and other consumers. Pacific salmon are an important resource for both fisheries and populations of wildlife around the Pacific rim, including coastal brown bears (Ursus arctos); salmon consumption has been positively linked to bear density, body size, and reproductive rate. As a case study within the broader context of human-wildlife competition for food, we used 16-22 yr of empirical data in four different salmon-bearing systems in southwestern Alaska to explore the relationship between sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) availability and consumption by bears. We found a negative relationship between the annual biomass of salmon available to bears and the fraction of biomass consumed per fish, and a saturating relationship between salmon availability and the total annual biomass of salmon consumed by bears. Under modeled scenarios, bear consumption of salmon was predicted to increase only with dramatic (on the order of 50-100%) increases in prey availability. Even such large increases in salmon abundance were estimated to produce relatively modest increases in per capita salmon consumption by bears (2.4-4.8 kg·bear-1 ·d-1 , 15-59% of the estimated daily maximum per capita intake), in part because bears did not consume salmon entirely, especially when salmon were most available. Thus, while bears catching salmon in small streams may be limited by salmon harvest in some years, current management of the systems we studied is sufficient for bear populations to reach maximum salmon consumption every 2-4 yr. Consequently, allocating more salmon for brown bear conservation would unlikely result in an ecologically significant response for bears in these systems, though other ecosystem components might benefit. Our results highlight the need for documenting empirical relationships between prey abundance and consumption, particularly in systems with partial consumption, when evaluating the ecological response of managing prey resources for wildlife populations.
PubMed ID
31863535 View in PubMed
Less detail

A multidecade experiment shows that fertilization by salmon carcasses enhanced tree growth in the riparian zone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302985
Source
Ecology. 2018 11; 99(11):2433-2441
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2018
Author
Thomas P Quinn
James M Helfield
Catherine S Austin
Rachel A Hovel
Andrew G Bunn
Author Affiliation
School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.
Source
Ecology. 2018 11; 99(11):2433-2441
Date
11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Ecosystem
Nitrogen
Salmon
Trees
Abstract
As they return to spawn and die in their natal streams, anadromous, semelparous fishes such as Pacific salmon import marine-derived nutrients to otherwise nutrient-poor freshwater and riparian ecosystems. Diverse organisms exploit this resource, and previous studies have indicated that riparian tree growth may be enhanced by such marine-derived nutrients. However, these studies were largely inferential and did not account for all factors affecting tree growth. As an experimental test of the contribution of carcasses to tree growth, for 20 yr, we systematically deposited all sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) carcasses (217,055 individual salmon) in the riparian zone on one bank of a 2-km-long stream in southwestern Alaska, reducing carcass accumulation on one bank and enhancing it on the other. After accounting for partial consumption and movement of carcasses by brown bears (Ursus arctos) and variation in salmon abundance and body size, we estimated that 267,620 kg of salmon were deposited on the enhanced bank and 45,200 kg on the depleted bank over the 20 yr, for a 5.9-fold difference in total mass. In 2016, we sampled needles of 84 white spruce trees (Picea glauca) the dominant riparian tree species, for foliar nitrogen (N) content and stable isotope ratios (d15 N), and took core samples for annual growth increments. Stable isotope analysis indicated that marine-derived N was incorporated into the new growth of the trees on the enhanced bank. Analysis of tree cores indicated that in the two decades prior to our enhancement experiment, trees on the south-facing (subsequently the depleted) bank grew faster than those on the north-facing (later enhanced) bank. This difference was reduced significantly during the two decades of fertilization, indicating an effect of the carcass transfer experiment against the background of other factors affecting tree growth.
PubMed ID
30351500 View in PubMed
Less detail

Thermal adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a warming world: Insights from common garden experiments on Alaskan sockeye salmon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295072
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 12; 23(12):5203-5217
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2017
Author
Morgan M Sparks
Peter A H Westley
Jeffrey A Falke
Thomas P Quinn
Author Affiliation
College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 12; 23(12):5203-5217
Date
12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acclimatization
Animals
Body Size
Climate change
Salmon - physiology
Temperature
Water
Abstract
An important unresolved question is how populations of coldwater-dependent fishes will respond to rapidly warming water temperatures. For example, the culturally and economically important group, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), experience site-specific thermal regimes during early development that could be disrupted by warming. To test for thermal local adaptation and heritable phenotypic plasticity in Pacific salmon embryos, we measured the developmental rate, survival, and body size at hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that overlap in timing of spawning but incubate in contrasting natural thermal regimes. Using a split half-sibling design, we exposed embryos of 10 families from each of two populations to variable and constant thermal regimes. These represented both experienced temperatures by each population, and predicted temperatures under plausible future conditions based on a warming scenario from the downscaled global climate model (MIROC A1B scenario). We did not find evidence of thermal local adaptation during the embryonic stage for developmental rate or survival. Within treatments, populations hatched within 1 day of each other, on average, and among treatments, did not differ in survival in response to temperature. We did detect plasticity to temperature; embryos developed 2.5 times longer (189 days) in the coolest regime compared to the warmest regime (74 days). We also detected variation in developmental rates among families within and among temperature regimes, indicating heritable plasticity. Families exhibited a strong positive relationship between thermal variability and phenotypic variability in developmental rate but body length and mass at hatching were largely insensitive to temperature. Overall, our results indicated a lack of thermal local adaptation, but a presence of plasticity in populations experiencing contrasting conditions, as well as family-specific heritable plasticity that could facilitate adaptive change.
PubMed ID
28586156 View in PubMed
Less detail

Thermal adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a warming world: Insights from common garden experiments on Alaskan sockeye salmon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283138
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jun 06;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-06-2017
Author
Morgan M Sparks
Peter A H Westley
Jeffrey A Falke
Thomas P Quinn
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jun 06;
Date
Jun-06-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
An important unresolved question is how populations of coldwater-dependent fishes will respond to rapidly warming water temperatures. For example, the culturally and economically important group, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), experience site-specific thermal regimes during early development that could be disrupted by warming. To test for thermal local adaptation and heritable phenotypic plasticity in Pacific salmon embryos, we measured the developmental rate, survival, and body size at hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon (O. nerka) that overlap in timing of spawning but incubate in contrasting natural thermal regimes. Using a split half-sibling design, we exposed embryos of 10 families from each of two populations to variable and constant thermal regimes. These represented both experienced temperatures by each population, and predicted temperatures under plausible future conditions based on a warming scenario from the downscaled global climate model (MIROC A1B scenario). We did not find evidence of thermal local adaptation during the embryonic stage for developmental rate or survival. Within treatments, populations hatched within one day of each other, on average, and among treatments, did not differ in survival in response to temperature. We did detect plasticity to temperature; embryos developed 2.5 times longer (189 days) in the coolest regime compared to the warmest regime (74 days). We also detected variation in developmental rates among families within and among temperature regimes, indicating heritable plasticity. Families exhibited a strong positive relationship between thermal variability and phenotypic variability in developmental rate but body length and mass at hatching were largely insensitive to temperature. Overall, our results indicated a lack of thermal local adaptation, but a presence of plasticity in populations experiencing contrasting conditions, as well as family-specific heritable plasticity that could facilitate adaptive change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
28586156 View in PubMed
Less detail

11 records – page 1 of 2.