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Adult respiratory outcomes of extreme preterm birth. A regional cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268379
Source
Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Mar;12(3):313-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Maria Vollsæter
Hege H Clemm
Emma Satrell
Geir E Eide
Ola D Røksund
Trond Markestad
Thomas Halvorsen
Source
Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Mar;12(3):313-22
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Forced expiratory volume
Forecasting
Humans
Infant, Extremely Premature
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature, Diseases - epidemiology - physiopathology
Lung
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Prognosis
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Retrospective Studies
Spirometry
Total lung capacity
Young Adult
Abstract
Lifetime respiratory function after extremely preterm birth (gestational age=28 wk or birth weight=1,000 g) is unknown.
To compare changes from 18-25 years of age in respiratory health, lung function, and airway responsiveness in young adults born extremely prematurely to that of term-born control subjects.
Comprehensive lung function investigations and interviews were conducted in a population-based sample of 25-year-old subjects born extremely prematurely in western Norway in 1982-1985, and in matched term-born control subjects. Comparison was made to similar data collected at 18 years of age.
At 25 years of age, 46/51 (90%) eligible subjects born extremely prematurely and 39/46 (85%) control subjects participated. z-Scores for FEV1, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of vital capacity, and FEV1/FVC were significantly reduced in subjects born extremely prematurely by 1.02, 1.26, and 0.88, respectively, and airway resistance (kPa/L/s) was increased (0.23 versus 0.18). Residual volume to total lung capacity increased with severity of neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Responsiveness to methacholine (dose-response slope; 3.16 versus 0.85) and bronchial lability index (7.5 versus 4.8%) were increased in subjects born extremely prematurely. Lung function changes from 18 to 25 years and respiratory symptoms were similar in the prematurely born and term-born groups.
Lung function in early adult life was in the normal range in the majority of subjects born extremely prematurely, but methacholine responsiveness was more pronounced than in term-born young adults, suggesting a need for ongoing pulmonary monitoring in this population.
PubMed ID
25616079 View in PubMed
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Association between pulmonary function and peak oxygen uptake in elderly: the Generation 100 study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274398
Source
Respir Res. 2015;16:156
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Erlend Hassel
Dorthe Stensvold
Thomas Halvorsen
Ulrik Wisløff
Arnulf Langhammer
Sigurd Steinshamn
Source
Respir Res. 2015;16:156
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aging - physiology
Exercise Test
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Linear Models
Lung - physiology
Male
Norway
Oxygen consumption
Predictive value of tests
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
Sex Factors
Spirometry
Abstract
Although reduced function of the respiratory system limits peak oxygen uptake in diseases affecting the lungs or airways, the healthy respiratory system is thought to have a spare capacity for oxygen transport and uptake, and is not considered a limiting factor for peak oxygen uptake in healthy people. However, lung function declines with age and could theoretically limit peak oxygen uptake in elderly. We examined the association between peak oxygen uptake and lung function indices in an elderly population with the hypothesis that lung function indices would be associated with VO2peak up to a threshold value situated above the lower limits of normal lung function for our population.
Spirometry, gas diffusion tests and incremental work tests were performed in 1443 subjects (714 women) aged 69-77 years. Association between lung function indices and peak oxygen uptake was studied with hockey-stick regression.
Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) had a positive association with peak oxygen uptake up to, but not above, a threshold value of 2.86 l for men, and 2.13 l for women (lower limit of normal 2.73 and 1.77 l respectively). A corresponding threshold was found for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) for men at 9.18 mmol/min/kPa (lower limit of normal 6.84 mmol/min/kPa). DLCO for women and DLCO divided by alveolar volume (DLCO/VA) for both sexes had a significant linear relationship to VO2peak (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
26715058 View in PubMed
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Benzodiazepine use in COPD: empirical evidence from Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272220
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:1695-702
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Thomas Halvorsen
Pål E Martinussen
Source
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:1695-702
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Benzodiazepines - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Drug Prescriptions
Drug Utilization Review
Female
Humans
Lung - drug effects - physiopathology
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
The common comorbidities associated with COPD include, among others, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, for which the typical treatment involves the use of benzodiazepines (BZD). However, these medicines should be used with extra caution among COPD patients, since treatment with traditional BZD may compromise respiratory function.
This study investigated the use of BZD among persons suffering from COPD by analyzing three relevant indicators: 1) the sum of defined daily doses (DDD); 2) the number of prescribers involved; and 3) the number of different types of BZD used.
The study builds on a linkage of national prescription data and patient-administrative data, which includes all Norwegian drug prescriptions to persons hospitalized with a COPD diagnosis during 2009, amounting to a total of 5,380 observations. Regression techniques were used to identify the patients and the clinical characteristics associated with BZD use.
Of the 5,380 COPD patients treated in hospital during 2009, 3,707 (69%) were dispensed BZD during the following 12 months. Moreover, they were dispensed on average 197.08 DDD, had 1.22 prescribers, and used 0.98 types of BZD during the year. Women are more likely to use BZD for all levels of BZD use. Overnight planned care not only increases the risk of BZD use (DDD), but also the number of prescribers and the types of BZD in use.
In light of the high levels of BZD prescription found in this study, especially among women, it is recommended that general practitioners, hospital specialists, and others treating COPD patients should aim to acquire a complete picture of their patients' BZD medication before more is prescribed in order to keep the use to a minimum.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26356249 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular disease in patients with genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia in Norway during 1994-2009, a registry study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287970
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 12;23(18):1962-1969
Publication Type
Article
Date
12-2016
Author
Liv Mundal
Marit B Veierød
Thomas Halvorsen
Kirsten B Holven
Leiv Ose
Per Ole Iversen
Grethe S Tell
Trond P Leren
Kjetil Retterstøl
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 12;23(18):1962-1969
Date
12-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Female
Genotype
Humans
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II - complications - epidemiology - genetics
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The primary aim of the present study was to describe sex differences in incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease leading to hospitalisation in a complete cohort of genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia patients. Design and methods In this registry study data on 5538 patients with verified genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia were linked to data on all Norwegian cardiovascular disease hospitalisations, and hospitalisations due to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, congenital heart defects and diabetes. Results During 1994-2009 a total of 1411 of familial hypercholesterolaemia patients were hospitalised, and ischaemic heart disease was reported in 90% of them. Mean (SD) age at first hospitalisation and first re-hospitalisation was 45.1 (16.5) and 47.6 (16.3) years, respectively, with no sex differences ( P?=?0.66 and P?=?0.93, respectively). More men (26.9%) than women (24.1%) with familial hypercholesterolaemia were hospitalised ( P?=?0.02). The median (25th-75th percentile) number of hospital admissions was four (two to seven) per familial hypercholesterolaemia patient, with no sex differences ( P?=?0.87). Despite having familial hypercholesterolaemia at the time of hospitalisation, the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia was registered in only 45.7% of the patients at discharge. Conclusion Most cardiovascular disease hospitalisations were due to ischaemic heart disease. Familial hypercholesterolaemia patients were first time hospitalised at age 45.1 years, with no significant sex differences in age, which are important novel findings. The awareness and registration of the familial hypercholesterolaemia diagnosis during the hospital stays were disturbingly low.
PubMed ID
27558979 View in PubMed
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Children Born Preterm at the Turn of the Millennium Had Better Lung Function Than Children Born Similarly Preterm in the Early 1990s.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274022
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144243
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Maria Vollsæter
Kaia Skromme
Emma Satrell
Hege Clemm
Ola Røksund
Knut Øymar
Trond Markestad
Thomas Halvorsen
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144243
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Premature
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Norway
Premature Birth
Respiratory Function Tests
Abstract
Compare respiratory health in children born extremely preterm (EP) or with extremely low birthweight (ELBW) nearly one decade apart, hypothesizing that better perinatal management has led to better outcome.
Fifty-seven (93%) of 61 eligible 11-year old children born in Western Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA)
Notes
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PubMed ID
26641080 View in PubMed
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Cross-country comparisons of health-care costs: the case of cancer treatment in the Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264946
Source
Health Policy. 2014 Apr;115(2-3):172-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Jorid Kalseth
Thomas Halvorsen
Birgitte Kalseth
Kjartan Sarheim Anthun
Mikko Peltola
Kirsi Kautiainen
Unto Häkkinen
Emma Medin
Jonatan Lundgren
Clas Rehnberg
Birna Björg Másdóttir
Maria Heimisdottir
Helga Hrefna Bjarnadóttir
Jóanis Erik Køtlum
Janni Kilsmark
Vidar Halsteinli
Source
Health Policy. 2014 Apr;115(2-3):172-9
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Diagnosis-Related Groups - economics - statistics & numerical data
Finland - epidemiology
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Neoplasms - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of this study is to perform a cross-country comparison of cancer treatment costs in the Nordic countries, and to demonstrate the added value of decomposing documented costs in interpreting national differences. The study is based on individual-level data from national patient and prescription drug registers, and data on cancer prevalence from the NORDCAN database. Hospital costs were estimated on the basis of information on diagnosis-related groups (DRG) cost weights and national unit costs. Differences in per capita costs were decomposed into two stages: stage one separated the price and volume components, and stage two decomposed the volume component, relating the level of activity to service needs and availability. Differences in the per capita costs of cancer treatment between the Nordic countries may be as much as 30 per cent. National differences in the costs of treatment mirror observed differences in total health care costs. Differences in health care costs between countries may relate to different sources of variation with different policy implications. Comparisons of per capita spending alone can be misleading if the purpose is to evaluate, for example, differences in service provision and utilisation. The decomposition analysis helps to identify the relative influence of differences in the prevalence of cancer, service utilisation and productivity.
PubMed ID
24462342 View in PubMed
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Do family and neighbourhood matter in secondary school completion? A multilevel study of determinants and their interactions in a life-course perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285075
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0172281
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Arnhild Myhr
Monica Lillefjell
Geir Arild Espnes
Thomas Halvorsen
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0172281
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Educational Status
Family
Family Characteristics
Family Conflict
Female
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Norway
Parents - education
Residence Characteristics
Schools
Social Environment
Students - psychology
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
Completion of secondary education is important for individuals' future health and health behaviour. The fundamental purpose of this study is to investigate the variation and clustering of school completion in families and neighbourhoods. Secondly, we aim to examine the impact of individuals' family structure and neighbourhood of residence and examine to what extent parental education level moderates these associations.
Longitudinal register data for 30% of the entire Norwegian population aged 21-27 years in 2010 (N = 107,003) was extracted from Statistic Norway´s event database. Three-level logistic regression models, which incorporated individual, family, and neighbourhood contextual factors, were applied to estimate the family and neighbourhood general contextual effects and detect possible educational differences in the impact of family structure and urban place of residence in school completion.
Completion rates were significantly higher within families with higher education level (79% in tertiary educated families vs. 61% and 48% in secondary and primary educated families respectively) and were strongly correlated within families (ICC = 39.6) and neighbourhoods (ICC = 5.7). Several structural factors at the family level negatively associated with school completion (e.g., family disruption, large family size, and young maternal age) were more prevalent and displayed more negative impact among primary educated individuals. Urban residence was associated with school completion, but only among the tertiary educated.
Investment in the resources in the individuals' immediate surroundings, including family and neighbourhood, may address a substantial portion of the social inequalities in the completion of upper secondary education. The high intra-familial correlation in school completion suggests that public health policies and future research should acknowledge family environments in order to improve secondary education completion rates among young people within lower educated families.
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One. 2017 Aug 29;12 (8):e018423128850592
PubMed ID
28222115 View in PubMed
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The geography of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study of Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258872
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Jun;111:25-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Thomas Halvorsen
Pål E Martinussen
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Jun;111:25-34
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Cluster analysis
Databases, Factual
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - drug therapy - epidemiology
Risk factors
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Spatial Analysis
Topography, Medical
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Research on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that includes geographic information is important in order to improve care and appropriate allocation of resources to patients suffering from COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geography of COPD and factors associated with the spatial patterns of COPD prevalence. Particular emphasis is put on the role of the local socioeconomic environment. Utilising information from the Norwegian Prescription Database on all lung medication prescribed in 2009 we identified 62,882 persons with COPD in the Norwegian population. Patterns of spatial clustering in the prevalence of COPD are clearly evident, even when age and gender are controlled for. Gender and age are strongly related to COPD risk. Socio-economic characteristics of the community such as education and unemployment are also significantly correlated with COPD risk. People living in rural parts of the country are generally associated with less risk than people in urban settings, and in particular people living in communities with high levels of farm and fisheries employment.
PubMed ID
24739936 View in PubMed
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Health and care service utilisation and cost over the life-span: a descriptive analysis of population data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305863
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 May 19; 20(1):435
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-19-2020
Author
Jorid Kalseth
Thomas Halvorsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Research, SINTEF Digital, P.O. Box 4760, Sluppen, NO-7465, Trondheim, Norway. jorid.kalseth@sintef.no.
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 May 19; 20(1):435
Date
May-19-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Care Costs - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Long-Term Care - economics
Male
Mental Health Services - economics
Middle Aged
Norway
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Current demographic changes affect both the level and composition of health and care needs in the population. The aim of this study was to estimate utilisation and cost for a comprehensive range of health and care services by age and gender to provide an in-depth picture of the life-span pattern of service needs and related costs.
Data on service use in 2010 for the entire population in Norway were collected from four high-quality national registers. Cost for different services were calculated combining data on service utilisation from the registries and estimates of unit cost. Data on cost and users were aggregated within four healthcare services and seven long-term care services subtypes. Per capita cost by age and gender was decomposed into user rates and cost per user for each of the eleven services.
Half of the population is under 40?years of age, but only a quarter of the health and care cost is used on this age group. The age-group of 65 or older, on the other hand, represent only 15% of the population, but is responsible for almost half of the total cost. Healthcare cost dominates in ages under 80 and mental health services dominates in adolescents and young adults. Use of other healthcare services are high in middle aged and elderly but decreases for the oldest old. Use of care services and in particular institutional care increases in old age. Healthcare cost per user follows roughly the same age pattern as user rates, whereas user cost for care services typically are either relatively stable or decrease with age among adults. Gender differences in the age pattern of health and care costs are also revealed and discussed.
The type of services used, and the related cost, show a clear life-span as well as gender pattern. Hence, population aging and narrowing gender-gap in longivety calls for high policy awarness on changing health and care needs. Our study also underscores the need for an attentive and pro-active stance towards the high service prevalence and high cost of mental health care in our upcoming generations.
PubMed ID
32429985 View in PubMed
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Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96885
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010;8:53
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Bente J Vederhus
Trond Markestad
Geir E Eide
Marit Graue
Thomas Halvorsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. bente.vederhus@helse-bergen.no
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010;8:53
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL) is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age
PubMed ID
20492724 View in PubMed
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