Treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has evolved during the last decades but it is largely unknown whether this has led to improved survival in the general MBC population. Based on the regional, population-based breast cancer registry, we identified 5,463 patients diagnosed with MBC in Stockholm County during 1979-2004. Patients were divided into five cohorts based on the year of first MBC diagnosis and observed and relative survival were compared across the cohorts after adjustment for potential confounders. A significant trend of better survival over time was demonstrated for patients 60 years or younger (P
Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy. Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy.
To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule.
A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial of women aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011.
Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks.
The primary end point was breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects.
Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97% with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (=1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P?=?.06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7% vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.99; P?=?.04; 5-year EFS, 86.7% vs 82.1%). The groups did not differ in OS (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57-1.05; P?=?.09; 5-year OS, 92.1% vs 90.2%) or DDFS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.64-1.08; P?=?.17; 5-year DDFS, 89.4% vs 86.7%). Grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxic effects occurred in 527 (52.6%) in the tailored dose-dense group and 366 (36.6%) in the control group.
Among women with high-risk early breast cancer, the use of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy compared with standard adjuvant chemotherapy did not result in a statistically significant improvement in breast cancer recurrence-free survival. Nonhematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the tailored dose-dense group.
The purpose of this study is to determine the prognostic role of Ki67 evaluated in relapse biopsies from patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Two hundred and ten patients diagnosed with MBC in Stockholm, Sweden between 1998 and 2009 and with Ki67 assessed at time of first systemic relapse (mKi67) were retrospectively identified and divided into two groups according to mKi67 fraction (low =20 %, high >20 %). Post-relapse survival was compared between the groups using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Death rate as function of continuous mKi67 was also evaluated. Furthermore, the prognostic role of intra-individual change in Ki67 between primary tumor and matched metastasis was explored by Kaplan-Meier plots. One hundred and twenty-five patients had low and 85 had high mKi67. Median survival was 25 and 17 months in low- and high-mKi67 group, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.51-0.92, P = 0.01]. In a multivariate model adjusted for prognostic confounders, low-mKi67 showed a non-significant trend toward better survival (HR 0.85, 95 %CI 0.62-1.16, P = 0.30). Nevertheless, mKi67 independently correlated with survival when compared with primary tumor proliferation (HR 0.56, 95 %CI 0.38-0.81, P = 0.002). The 2-year death rate steeply increased as mKi67 increased. Moreover, the change from high in primary tumor to low in metastasis significantly correlated with longer survival when compared with stable Ki67 levels (HR 0.48, 95 %CI 0.31-0.76, P = 0.002). In this cohort of MBC patients, mKi67 inversely but not independently correlated with survival. However, a significant association between mKi67 and survival was shown regardless of primary tumor proliferation.
Eribulin is a non-taxane, microtubule dynamics inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in Europe in March 2011.
For the purpose of an internal quality control, all patients with MBC treated with eribulin at Karolinska University Hospital were registered in a database. Clinical data were collected retrospectively for patients that were registered by August 2012 and safety and efficacy of eribulin were evaluated. Treatment toxicity including fatigue, neurotoxicity and infection was graded according to CTCAE v4.0. Objective response to treatment was investigated using routinely performed radiological assessments. When only clinical assessments were made, the evaluation of the treating physician was used. Furthermore, the efficacy of eribulin was investigated in different tumor subtypes.
Forty-eight patients who received at least one cycle of eribulin were identified. Most patients were heavily pretreated with a median of 3 (range 1-7) previous chemotherapy lines prior to eribulin. Median patient age was 56 years (range 35-74). At the end of the analysis, 23 patients were alive and two were still treated with eribulin. No hypersensitivity reactions and no toxic deaths were seen. Fatigue grade 3-4 was observed in three patients (6.3%). One patient experienced grade 4 neurotoxicity. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was documented in 18.8%, and three patients were treated for a grade 3 infection. Interestingly, three individuals developed Herpes zoster reactivation. One patient responded to treatment with complete remission, while 33.3% had a partial response. 48% of all patients had a clinical benefit (objective response or stable disease for more than six months).
Eribulin administered outside of a clinical trial in patients with advanced breast cancer was safe and well tolerated. A clinical benefit was seen in half of the cases. No statistically significant differences in objective response or survival were observed between histopathological subgroups.