The positive influence of social support on psychological wellbeing is well documented but the research among young adults is scarce. Additionally, it is still unclear what type of social support explains the positive influence in this age group. Alexithymia has been linked to lacking social support and higher levels of psychological distress, but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. We aimed to assess the association of social support and alexithymia with psychological distress in a sample of young adults. The non-clinical sample comprised 316 young Finnish adults (mean age 23 years). Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and social support with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The associations were assessed using regression analyses. The TAS-20 (p = 0.002) and MSPSS (p =
From the Turku PET Centre (N.K., J. Johansson, J.T., J. Joutsa, J.R., E.R., J.P., J.O.R.), University of Turku; Division of Clinical Neurosciences (N.K., J. Joutsa, E.R., J.O.R.), Turku University Hospital; Department of Radiology (R.P.), Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Finland; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging (J. Joutsa), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown; Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (J. Joutsa), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Public Health Solutions (T.N., T.L., M.K.), Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Division of Clinical Geriatrics (T.N., A.S., M.K.), Center for Alzheimer Research, NVS, and Aging Research Center (A.S., M.K.), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology (A.S., R.S., Y.L., H.S., M.K.), Institute of Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition (T.L.), University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio; Department of Neurology (T.H., H.S.), Kuopio University Hospital; Research and Service Centre for Occupational Health (T.P.), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki; Joint Municipal Authority for North Karelia Social and Health Services (T.L.), Joensuu; National Institute for Health and Welfare (A.J.); and Department of Biostatistics (T.V.), University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org.
To investigate brain amyloid pathology in a dementia-risk population defined as cardiovascular risk factors, aging, and dementia risk (CAIDE) score of at least 6 but with normal cognition and to examine associations between brain amyloid load and cognitive performance and vascular risk factors.
A subgroup of 48 individuals from the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) main study participated in brain 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, brain MRI, and neuropsychological assessment at the beginning of the study. Lifestyle/vascular risk factors were determined as body mass index, blood pressure, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose homeostasis model assessment. White matter lesions were visually rated from MRIs by a semiquantitative Fazekas score.
Twenty participants (42%) had a positive PiB-PET on visual analysis. The PiB-positive group performed worse in executive functioning tests, included more participants with APOE e4 allele (50%), and showed slightly better glucose homeostasis compared to PiB-negative participants. PiB-positive and -negative participants did not differ significantly in other cognitive domain scores or other vascular risk factors. There was no significant difference in Fazekas score between the PiB groups.
The high percentage of PiB-positive participants provides evidence of a successful recruitment process of the at-risk population in the main FINGER intervention trial. The results suggest a possible association between early brain amyloid accumulation and decline in executive functions. APOE e4 was clearly associated with amyloid positivity, but no other risk factor was found to be associated with positive PiB-PET.
To describe and compare shift leaders' important information needs by profession, unit, time of day and type of hospital.
Professionals responsible for care provision in hospital units make ad hoc decisions about available resources to meet patient care needs but, currently, much effort is needed to obtain the necessary information to support decision making.
This survey was carried out in nine randomly chosen hospitals in Finland. Nurses and physicians responsible for day-to-day operations were eligible to participate (N = 873). The response rate was 65% (n = 570, including 453 nurses and 111 physicians). Data were collected in 2015-2016 using the Hospital Shift Leaders' Information Needs Questionnaire with 114 information need items.
Shift leaders reported many real-time information needs. Nurses' important information needs concerned patients, personnel, and materials, and physicians' needs focused on patient care. Large mean differences existed in the needs between nurses and physicians, and imaging units when compared to other units.
Real-time information systems for shift leaders should consider the needs of different users to support shared situational awareness and operational intelligence.
The important information-need items identified here may be used in designing and developing information systems that better support shift leaders' work in hospitals.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon in western countries and data on the outcome and histological presentation are scarce in nonendemic areas. We report here the outcome on all patients with NPC treated in Finland between 1990 and 2009.
The Finnish Cancer Registry database was used to identify the patients. Histopathological specimens and clinical records were reviewed to confirm the histological subtypes, prognostic factors, treatment techniques and outcome across different stage groups.
Primary NPC was identified in 207 patients and 42 (20%) had keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The stage distribution was: I, 11%; II, 25%; III, 39%; IV, 25%. Of 191 patients treated with curative intent 85 (44%) received radiotherapy and 106 (56%) chemoradiotherapy. The five-year overall survival for all patients was 57% and for stages I-IV 87%, 69%, 55% and 31%, respectively. The five-year disease-specific and overall survival of all patients treated between 1990 and 1999 were 58% and 49%, and those between 2000 and 2009 66% and 63%, respectively.
While survival rates are improving and comparable to other western countries they remain inferior to those of endemic countries. This may reflect the different biology of NPC in nonendemic areas, where keratinizing SCC is common.
More recent birth cohorts of older people have better physical and cognitive status than earlier cohorts. As such, this could be expected to diminish the need for institutional care. The prediction of the future need for institutional care provides essential information for the planning and delivery of future care and social services as well as the resources needed.
To predict the future need for institutional care among older Finnish people born in 1940.
Representative samples of home-dwelling 70-year-olds from Turku, Finland were examined with similar methods in 1991 (those born in 1920) (n = 1,032) and in 2011 (those born in 1940) (n = 956). Predictors of institutionalization rates from the earlier 1920 cohort, together with data of sociodemographic factors, health, psychosocial and physical status, the need for help, and health behavior, were used to predict the future institutionalization rate among the 1940 cohort in this study using Cox regression models.
Health as well as psychosocial and physical status were significantly better in the 1940 cohort compared to the earlier cohort. In the 1940 cohort, the predicted rates of institutionalization were 1.8, 10.4, and 26.0% at the ages of 80 (year 2020), 85 (year 2025), and 90 years (year 2030), respectively. At every age (80, 85, and 90 years), the predicted rates of institutionalization by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were about two-fold among those with MMSE scores 18-26 (3.0-38.8%) compared to those with scores 27-30 (1.6-23.7%) and those with a body mass index (BMI)
Hyperemesis gravidarum, excessive vomiting in pregnancy, affects approximately 0.3-3.0% of all pregnancies, but the risk is considerably higher in pregnancies following a hyperemetic pregnancy. The reported recurrence rate of hyperemesis gravidarum is wide, ranging from 15-81%, depending on study settings. Factors affecting recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum are as yet insufficiently studied.
We sought to evaluate the recurrence rate of hyperemesis gravidarum in subsequent pregnancies, to elucidate chronological patterns of recurrence of the condition, and to analyze maternal, environmental, and pregnancy-related factors associated with recurring hyperemesis gravidarum.
Out of all pregnancies ending in delivery in Finland from 2004 through 2011, data of women who had at least 1 pregnancy ending in delivery following a pregnancy diagnosed with hyperemesis gravidarum were retrieved from hospital discharge register and medical birth register (1836 women, 4103 pregnancies; 1836 index pregnancies and 2267 subsequent pregnancies). The first pregnancy with hyperemesis gravidarum diagnosis was chosen as the index pregnancy, and recurrence rate was calculated by comparing the number of hyperemetic pregnancies that followed the index pregnancy to the total number of pregnancies that followed the index pregnancy. Recurrence patterns of hyperemesis gravidarum were illustrated by presenting the chronological order of the women's pregnancies beginning from the index pregnancy to the end of the follow-up period. The associations between recurring hyperemesis and age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, marital and socioeconomic status, domicile, month of delivery, assisted reproductive technology, sex, and number of fetuses were analyzed in both the index pregnancies and in pregnancies following the index pregnancy.
There were 544 pregnancies with a hyperemesis diagnosis and 1723 pregnancies without a hyperemesis diagnosis following the index pregnancies. The overall recurrence rate of hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnancies following the index pregnancy was 24%. In case of >1 subsequent pregnancy, 11% of women were diagnosed with hyperemesis in all of their pregnancies. In the index pregnancies, recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum was more common among women with parity of 2 than parity of 1 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.33, P = .046). Overweight women (adjusted odds ratio, 0.58, P = .036) or women who smoked after the first trimester (adjusted odds ratio, 0.27, P