Are changes in left ventricular volume as measured with the biplane Simpson's method predominantly related to changes in its area or long axis in the prognostic evaluation of remodelling following a myocardial infarction?
AIMS: Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography has been widely applied to measure left ventricular volumes with the biplane Simpson's method in the assessment of left ventricular remodelling following an acute myocardial infarction. This volume formula is based upon tracings of endocardium and measurement of long axis on left ventricular images. In the present follow-up study of post-myocardial infarction patients we evaluated the prognostic impact of changes in left ventricular areas and geometry versus long axis to determine if only long-axis measurements may be used for prognostic purposes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two-dimensional echocardiographic video recordings of the apical four-chamber and long-axis views were obtained in 756 patients 2--7 days and 3 months following an acute myocardial infarction. All videotapes were sent to a core laboratory and left ventricular volumes were measured with the biplane Simpson's method in end-diastole and end-systole. During the first 3 months 44 patients had suffered one of the following end-points and were excluded: cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, heart failure or chronic arrhythmia. Over a period of 3--24 months 58 such end-points occurred. With the Cox proportional hazards model the increase in left ventricular systolic volume was the strongest predictor for such events (Chi-square 18.5, P
This study was undertaken to characterise patients without overt heart failure and with a left ventricular ejection fraction > or = 40% 2-7 days following an acute myocardial infarction. Patients with an ejection fraction > or = 40% (n = 868) had a lower prevalence of anterior myocardial infarction (p or = 40% had smaller left ventricular volume and mass (p or = 40%. Pro-ANP levels were not correlated with the ejection fraction or left ventricular volume. Approximately two thirds of the patients received thrombolytic treatment.
Prognostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography and N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide following an acute myocardial infarction. Assessment of baseline values (2-7 days) and changes at 3 months in patients with a preserved systolic function.
AIMS: The purpose of this prospective, observational study was to evaluate the relationship of left ventricular volumes, systolic function and plasma N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (Nt-proANP) to cardiac morbidity and mortality in post-myocardial infarction patients with left ventricular ejection fraction > or =40%. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two-dimensional echocardiographic recordings and Nt-proANP measurements were obtained in 834 patients who survived acute myocardial infarction. Patients were examined at 2-7 days and 3 months after the index infarction and followed up for 24 months. All measurements of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction and Nt-proANP were performed in core laboratories. During follow-up 102 patients sustained one or more incidents of the combined primary end-point: cardiac death (n=11), recurrent infarction (n=55) or heart failure requiring hospitalization or treatment with an ACE inhibitor and a diuretic (n=52). Using Cox proportional hazards model, baseline Nt-proANP predicted these events (chi-square 25.3, P or =40%) baseline Nt-proANP, but not echocardiographic left ventricular volumes predicted adverse cardiac events. Early changes in left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from baseline to 3 months had a further prognostic impact on subsequent events (3-24 months).
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2002 Jul;23(13):996-712093047
To assess the relationship between baseline left ventricle function, functional reserve and resting myocardial perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After AMI the presence of dysfunctioning but viable myocardium plays a determinant role in clinical outcome. Regional ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography both in resting conditions and during dobutamine infusion (10 microg/kg/min). Perfusion was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in a single slice approach where the first pass of an intravenously injected bolus of gadolinium-based contrast agent was followed through six regions of interest within the myocardium. In each patient a region with normal function was used as reference and the cross-correlation coefficient (CCC), which described the myocardial perfusion relatively to the reference region (CCC = 1 means equivalent perfusion), was obtained for the other five myocardial regions. Twenty-two patients were enrolled into the study. Sixty-one segments had normal function and normal perfusion (CCC = 0.92+/-0.23). The perfusion deficit was more marked in the 29 regions with resting akinesia-dyskinesia than in the 20 hypokinetic regions (CCC = 0.71+/-0.45 vs. 0.84+/-0.23; p
Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory disease that affects aorta and its main branches. The disease is rare; its etiology is unknown and shows race differences. The inflammation of the arteries may lead to stenosis, occlusions, dilatations or aneurysms. The clinical picture and angiographic findings are not previously reported in a Norwegian cohort.
We report a retrospective, hospital-based study describing the clinical picture, diagnostic findings, treatment and prognosis in a cohort of six patients in Central Norway with Takayasu's arteritis. The data was extracted through chart review.
In the period 1988-2000, six patients with Takayasu's arteritis, five women and one man, were identified. All the patients were of Norwegian origin. Median age at diagnosis was 39 years, range 24-63 years, and median time from first symptoms to definite diagnosis was six months, range 1-36 months. The estimated minimum annual incidence was 0.8 per million. All patients had elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate; five out of six patients had unilateral or bilateral subclavian stenosis; one patient had a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. All patients were treated with prednisolone. There were no deaths in the observation period of median 7.5 years, range 0-26 years.
Takayasu's arteritis is a rare disease in our region, with lower incidence than reported in the literature. The prognosis is excellent, but the morbidity was substantial. The clinical findings are similar to those reported in other studies. The location and appearance of the angiographic findings were characteristic for the disease.