To search for correlations between specific anatomic, geometric, and morphological properties of the trigeminal nerve and the success of radiosurgical treatment and elimination of facial hypesthesia as a complication.
Forty-six patients with at least 6 months of follow-up after CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) rhizotomy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients treated after 2004 were entered into the study after congruity in treatment parameters was established. Anatomic variations regarding the length of each nerve segment and angle of trigeminal nerve takeoff from brainstem to Meckel's cave in the axial and sagittal planes were studied. Dose distribution to surrounding critical structures (brainstem and trigeminal ganglion) was measured. After spatial relationships of involved structures and dose distributions were recorded, their relationship to treatment success, failure, or complication (primarily facial numbness) was tabulated.
Forty-five patients (97.2%) experienced pain relief immediately or within weeks. Thirty-four patients maintained excellent outcome. Some degree of facial numbness developed in 18 patients (39.1%) and was mild in 11 of them (Grade II on the Barrow Neurological Institute scale). Patients with a sagittal-angle trigeminal nerve takeoff from the brainstem in the range of 150 to 170 degrees measured from the horizontal plane had a more favorable outcome (P = 0.03) than patients with less obtuse relationships to the proximal nerve origin. Patients who received higher doses of radiation to the brainstem/dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve experienced a higher rate of posttreatment facial anesthesia.
There may be important anatomic and geometric relationships between the treated trigeminal nerve and surrounding critical structures that warrant pretreatment target volume placement and dose distribution considerations.
BACKGROUND: Although the persistence of multilineage microchimerism in recipients of long-surviving organ transplants implies engraftment of migratory pluripotent donor stem cells, the ultimate localization in the recipient of these cells has not been determined in any species. METHODS: Progenitor cells were demonstrated in the bone marrow and nonparenchymal liver cells of naive rats and in Brown Norway (BN) recipients of Lewis (LEW) allografts by semiquantitative colony-forming unit in culture (CFU-C) assays. The LEW allografts of bone marrow cells (BMC) (2.5x10(8)), orthotopic livers, or heterotopic hearts (abdominal site) were transplanted under a 2-week course of daily tacrolimus, with additional single doses on days 20 and 27. Donor CFU-C colonies were distinguished from recipient colonies in the allografts and recipient bone marrow with a donor-specific MHC class II monoclonal antibody. The proportions of donor and recipient colonies were estimated from a standard curve created by LEW and BN bone marrow mixtures of known concentrations. RESULTS: After the BMC infusions, 5-10% of the CFU-C in the bone marrow of BN recipients were of the LEW phenotype at 14, 30, and 60 days after transplantation. At 100 days, however, donor CFU-C could no longer be found at this site. The pattern of LEW CFU-C in the bone marrow of BN liver recipients up to 60 days was similar to that in recipients of 2.5x10(8) BMC, although the donor colonies were only 1/20 to 1/200 as numerous. This was expected, because the progenitor cells in the passenger leukocytes of a single liver are equivalent to those in 1-5x10(6) BMC. Using a liquid CFU-C assay, donor progenitor cells were demonstrated among the nonparenchymal cells of liver allografts up to 100 days. In contrast, after heart transplantation, donor CFU-C could not be identified in the recipient bone marrow, even at 14 days. CONCLUSION: effective immunosuppression, allogeneic hematopoietic progenitors compete effectively with host cells for initial engraftment in the bone marrow of noncytoablated recipients, but disappear from this location between 60 and 100 days after transplantation, coincident with the shift of donor leukocyte chimerism from the lymphoid to the nonlymphoid compartment that we previously have observed in this model. It is possible that the syngeneic parenchymal environment of the liver allografts constitutes a privileged site for persistent progenitor donor cells.
Airway responsiveness (AR) to inhaled acetylcholine and bradykinin and inflammatory cell recruitment in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were studied in inbred male Brown-Norway rats actively sensitized to ovalbumin and later given 500 U interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) intratracheally. We examined animals 14 to 21 days after initial sensitization at 18 to 24 hours after the intratracheal administration of IL-1 beta. We evaluated AR to acetylcholine as -log PC200, which is -log10 transformation of provocative concentration of acetylcholine producing 200% increase in lung resistance, and to bradykinin as percent increase in lung resistance. BALF was examined as an index of inflammatory changes within the lung. Although there was no significant difference in baseline lung resistance, nonsensitized and sensitized animals that were given IL-1 beta demonstrated a significant increase of AR to bradykinin at 18 to 24 hours and a significant increase of neutrophil counts in BALF, which was already observed by 4 to 6 hours. There was a significant correlation between AR to bradykinin and neutrophil counts in BALF in all animals (r = 0.644; p
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a novel mediator in apoptosis. AIF is a flavoprotein that is normally confined to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, yet translocates to the nucleus in several in vitro models of apoptosis. To investigate the role of AIF in the apoptotic process in vivo, we induced retinal detachment (RD) by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate, either in Brown Norway rats or in C3H mice. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as determined by terminal nick-end labeling, was most prominent 3 days after RD. The subcellular localization of AIF was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. In normal photoreceptor cells, AIF was present in the mitochondrion-rich inner segment. However, AIF was found in the nucleus after RD. Photoreceptor apoptosis developed similarly in C3H control mice, and in mice bearing the gld or lpr mutations, indicating that cell death occurs independently from the CD95/CD95 ligand system. Both the mitochondrio-nuclear transition of AIF localization and the nuclear DNA fragmentation were inhibited by subretinal application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. To our knowledge, this is the first description of AIF relocalization occurring in a clinically relevant, in vivo model of apoptosis.
We determined the effects of selective inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism via the cyclooxygenase and 5'-lipoxygenase pathways using flurbiprofen and BWA4C, respectively, of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) using methysergide and of platelet-activating factor (PAF) using WEB 2086 on the airway responses to ovalbumin (OA) aerosol in OA-sensitized Brown Norway rats. Twenty-one days after intraperitoneal injection of OA, rats were exposed to a 1% OA or saline aerosol. Only methysergide (10 mg/kg i.p.; 3 doses over 24 h) provided significant protection of the immediate response to OA. The increase in airway responsiveness to acetylcholine after OA exposure was not significantly altered by methysergide, flurbiprofen (10 mg/kg i.p.), BWA4C (50 mg/kg i.p.) and WEB 2086 (50 mg/kg i.p.) all given over 24 h prior to OA challenge. In addition, there was no effect on the increased recovery of eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 24 h. We conclude that 5-HT is an important mediator of the acute response to OA, but that 5-HT, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase products and PAF are unlikely to be involved in OA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in the Brown Norway rat.