The house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae, was fractionated by a Sephadex G-200 column. Its allergenic (IgE-reacting) and immunogenic (IgG-reacting) components were investigated. By means of skin test, the molecular weight (MW) of major allergenic components of mite was found to be approximately 9,000 to 21,000 daltons. Immunogenic components were investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using each fraction as an antigen and mice plasma and human serum as antibodies. With mouse plasma, high IgG antibody titers were observed in fractions that contained the part of the mite with high MW (greater than 150,000). With human sera, high IgG antibody titers were observed in fractions that contained the part of the mite with MW more than 30,000. Heterogeneity of human IgG antibody responses against mite antigen was also suggested.
IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01).
Mite antigens (Dermatophagoides farinae) were fractionated by a Sephadex G-200 column and their reactivities with IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were investigated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). High IgE antibody values were observed in fractions with low molecular weight (allergenic part), while high IgG1 and IgG4 antibody values were observed in fractions with high molecular weight. High IgG4 antibody values to crude mite extract and fractions with high molecular weight were detected in individuals who had received immunotherapy. However, IgG4 antibodies directed to allergenic part were found in only one out of 12 sera tested. IgG4-ELISA using DF1 (major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae) as antigen was also performed. In the group treated with mite, significant IgG4 antibody levels were detected in only one out of 13 sera tested. In the group treated with house dust, significant IgG4 antibodies were detected in only one out of 12 sera tested. Patients who showed high IgG4 antibody responses to crude mite extract and to high molecular weight did not show responses to allergenic part and DF1. The only case who showed positive IgG4 responses to allergenic part also reacted with DF1. Those results suggest that IgG1 and IgG4 antibody values in ELISA using crude mite extract as antigen do not reflect major allergen-specific antibody values. The importance of the use of partially purified antigens in measuring major allergen-specific IgG4 antibodies was also suggested.