Three hundred and forty-eight children from Skaraborg County, Sweden, admitted to hospital with abdominal injuries over a 30-year period (1951-1980), have been analysed and compared with all patients with abdominal injury (1407) admitted to hospital from the same area during the same period. The number of children admitted in the second half of the period was greater than during the first but the proportion of children compared with adults was considerably reduced. During the period abdominal injuries due to car accidents increased in adults but not in children. The most frequent cause of abdominal injury in children was a bicycle accident. Abdominal injury due to sport also increased over the period. Mortality decreased, with no deaths in the past 10 years, compared with 8.6 per cent mortality in the first 10 years of the period.
The frequency of abdominal injury is rising. In an analysis of 1,354 cases of closed abdominal trauma sustained during a 30-year period (1950-1979) in Skaraborg County, Sweden, a distinct increase was found in the numbers associated with sporting activities. The severity of the injuries caused by sports likewise showed an increase. The representation of injured organs was of the same order as in the total series of closed abdominal injuries. An analysis of the 136 cases of sports-associated injury is presented with regard to cause and type of the injuries, diagnosis and prognosis.
Studies have been made in 1407 patients of the causes, the organs involved and the outcome of injury to the abdomen in patients needing admission to hospital in an area of Southern Sweden, between 1950 and the end of 1979. The proportion of female patients and those aged over 60 increased significantly. The seasonal distribution of the injuries showed significant change, with a drop in the initially high frequency sustained during the summer months. Penetrating injuries were rare, but increased in the 1970s. Road traffic accidents as the cause of abdominal injuries rose to a maximum of 56 per cent in the late 1960s. The numbers of injured organs and the frequency of other associated injuries rose gradually until the mid-1970s, after which there was a slight decrease. The spleen, liver and large blood vessels were the organs which were increasingly often injured. The annual incidence of various visceral injuries per 100 000 population was calculated. The number of patients with a delay of at least 24 hours before operation fell significantly and there was a tendency to shorter hospital stay. The mortality curve showed a peak in the late 1960s.
Abdominal trauma occurring in persons older than 60 years over a 30-year period (1950-79) in a well defined region of Sweden was reviewed. The 177 patients comprised 12.5% of the total with abdominal trauma during that period. Road traffic accidents were the main cause of trauma (48% of cases). The incidence of motor-car accidents rose sharply during the first two decades of the study. Injuries to the liver and bile ducts and multiple intra-abdominal injuries were more common in the elderly than in younger patients, but injury to the abdominal wall was less common. A tendency towards more severe injuries and multiple trauma with extra-abdominal involvement emerged during the study period. The mortality rate was 27.6% in the patients older than 60, but 9.1% in the overall patient series with abdominal trauma. One-third of all the deaths among the older patients were directly due to the abdominal trauma. One consequence of the increasing numbers of old people in the general population is probably that more and more cases of abdominal trauma will be seen in the higher age groups.
Case records of 417 patients, from a well-defined area, who were hospitalized because of blunt renal trauma during the period 1950-1979 were analyzed. The incidence increased during the final decade, corresponding to a rising incidence of motor traffic accidents and sports injuries. Young patients, between 10 and 29 years of age, were responsible for the increase and half of all patients were in this age group. Associated injuries were frequent. Emergency urography was rare during the earlier part of the investigation period, but the frequency increased strongly thereafter. Treatment was mainly conservative (nonoperative) except in patients with major renal injuries. Nephrectomy was performed in 22 patients. Reconstructive surgery was performed especially in patients with intermediate renal injuries during the final decade. The total mortality was 6.5%. Only 7 patients (1.7%) died from the renal injury. A dramatic reduction in the hospitalization time was noted.
The relative costs were analysed of (1) no prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis (DVT), (2) selective treatment of DVT after confirmation of diagnosis, (3) general prophylaxis with standard low-dose unfractionated heparin and (4) general prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in patients undergoing elective general abdominal surgery or elective hip surgery. The mean calculated costs per patient undergoing general abdominal surgery were: Swedish crowns (SEK) 1950 for no prophylaxis, SEK 5710 for selective treatment of DVT, SEK 735 for prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin and SEK 665 for prophylaxis with LMWH. The corresponding costs for hip surgery were SEK 3930, SEK 10790, SEK 1730 and SEK 1390 respectively. Thus, the least expensive management strategy in patients undergoing elective general abdominal or hip surgery would appear to be general prophylaxis with either unfractionated heparin or LMWH. Furthermore, general prophylaxis with LMWH would appear to be more cost-effective than general prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin.
Several studies have shown thromboprophylaxis of any kind to be more cost-effective than no prophylaxis or general diagnostic surveillance and selective treatment. Little has been written on low molecular weight heparins from the cost-effectiveness point of view. This preliminary study shows low molecular weight heparin to be more cost-effective than standard low-dose heparin in most situations of prophylaxis.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il-1ra) and interleukin-1beta (Il-1beta) can be detected in human carotid artery tissue, and whether their presence is related to evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, risk factors for atherosclerosis, and clinical data. SETTING: Departments of Vascular Diseases and Surgical Pathophysiology, University Hospital, Malm?, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 66 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (median age 74, range 53-89 years, 26 women). Il-1beta and Il-1ra were studied in carotid artery plaques and in Il-1ra in serum. RESULTS: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was detected in mononuclear cells in plaques from 37/66 (56%) patients. Patients with Il-1ra in plaques showed higher [2.04 (1.70-3.14) mmol x L(-1) vs. 1.69 (1.09-1.99) mmol x L(-1); P
Intestinal injuries sustained by 101 Swedish patients during the period 1950-1979 are reviewed. The abdominal trauma was blunt in 78 cases and penetrating in 23. Small-bowel and mesenteric, but not large-bowel, injuries showed increasing frequency. This was associated with rising numbers of motorcar accidents. Injuries to other abdominal organs were found in 56 of the 101 patients, particularly in those with mesenteric or large-bowel trauma. Clear physical signs of intra-abdominal injury led to rapid surgical exploration in most cases, but some operations were performed after relatively long observation. Most injuries, including those in the colon, were treated with primary repair or resection. Decompressive colostomy or exteriorization were rarely performed. Deaths were mainly caused by other factors than the type of operation. The mortality rate (35%) was constant.