OBJECTIVE: To compare food group intakes in grams, total energy and energy contribution from macronutrients between two random samples of women, using a standardized computer program (EPIC SOFT) with either a face-to-face or a telephone 24 h recall interview design. METHODS: Two groups of Norwegian women living in Tromsø were drawn at random from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC) cohort. The EPIC SOFT computer program was used to conduct single 24 h dietary recalls either by telephone or face to face. For the latter, 160 women were invited, of whom 111 responded positively (crude response rate=69.4%) and 102 were interviewed. For the telephone option, 180 were invited to participate, 109 responded positively (crude response rate=60.6%) and 103 were interviewed. RESULTS: The two groups of women were similar with respect to age, body mass index, basal metabolic rate, smoking, education, physical activity and special diet status. No statistically significant difference in dietary intake was found between interviews conducted by telephone and face-to-face, except for 'egg and egg products' (P
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of cod-liver oil supplements among Norwegian women and to examine dietary, lifestyle, demographic, and health factors associated with use of this supplement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The study is based on data from a food frequency questionnaire from 1998 answered by 37,226 women aged 41-55 y, who in 1991/1992 participated in the Norwegian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The Norwegian EPIC cohort was based on a random nation-wide sample of Norwegian women. RESULTS: Cod-liver oil supplement use was reported by 44.7% of the participating women. Subjects with higher education, high physical activity level, and body mass index (BMI) in the normal range were more likely to use cod-liver oil supplements. Consumption did also increase with increased age as well as with increased reported consumption of fruits, vegetables, fatty fish, lean fish, and vitamin D (excluding the vitamin D contribution from cod-liver oil). Energy intake was higher among cod-liver oil users than nonusers. Whole-year daily users of cod-liver oil were also more likely to take other dietary supplements (OR=2.45, 95% CI: 2.28-2.62). Never smokers were more likely to use cod-liver oil supplements than current smokers. CONCLUSION: Use of cod-liver oil is associated with several sociodemographic factors, self-reported health issues, and intake of fish, fruit, and vegetables. When assessing the relationship between cod-liver oil use and occurrence of chronic diseases potential confounders need to be considered. Cod-liver oil use seemed not to be matched with vitamin D needs. Thus, emphasis on assessing vitamin D status by measuring levels in blood should be investigated further, in particular, among people living in northern latitudes.
The risk of ovarian epithelial neoplasia following use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) was examined in data from the Norwegian-Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort including 103551 women aged 30-49 years in 1991-92. Follow-up through 2000 produced 214 incident cases of histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian neoplasias (135 invasive and 79 borderline cases). Using the Cox proportional hazard models, ever having used HC was associated with a decreased relative risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.8). The effect of duration of HC use was convincing (P for trend
This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH), the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC).
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.
The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0). Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97). The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70). Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37) than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56). The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.
We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.