The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments.
The present study aims to explore the relationship between conscientiousness and the consumption of healthy versus unhealthy main meals. Impulsive eating was tested as a mediator in this relationship, as well as direct effects of age on those constructs. A nationwide representative sample of 1,006 Norwegian adults (18-70 years) within a prospective design was used to test a theoretical model. The structural equation model (SEM), in combination with bootstrapping procedures in AMOS, was the principal analytical method. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating. Impulsive eating was a partial mediator between conscientiousness and unhealthy eating and a full mediator between conscientiousness and healthy eating. Age was positively correlated with conscientiousness and this relationship had an inverted U-shape form. Finally, age was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating, and positively associated with healthy eating. This study confirmed the relevance of conscientiousness for healthy, unhealthy, and impulsive eating.
The present study investigated the link between consideration of immediate and future consequences (CFC-I and CFC-F), and perceived change in the future self (PCFS) to healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Furthermore, we explored the moderation effect of PCFS on the relationship between CFC-I and CFC-F and health behaviors. We observed that CFC-I was linked to unhealthy behaviors, whereas CFC-F was associated with healthy behaviors. PCFS had a direct negative effect on healthy behaviors, and as a moderator, it strengthened the positive effect of CFC-I and dampened the negative effect of CFC-F on unhealthy behaviors. Implications for health communication are discussed.
The role of habit strength and past behaviour were studied in order to gain a better understanding of seafood consumption behaviour. A sample of Norwegian adults (N=1579) responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, and attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. Structural equation modelling revealed that past behaviour and habit, rather than attitudes, were found to explain differences in intention, indicating that forming intention does not necessarily have to be reasoned. The results also indicated that when a strong habit is present, the expression of an intention might be guided by the salience of past behaviour rather than by attitudes. The findings of this study might thus have consequences for dietary interventions.
We investigated the temporal profiles of a Norwegian general population sample and their relation to health behaviors and intentions. The profiles were based on variables from the present and future dimensions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS), and the combination of both scales. The analysis revealed that there were only two stable clusters that corresponded to the present and the future profiles. Generally, CFCS-based present and future profiles were more effective at predicting health behaviors and intentions than ZTPI-based profiles. Profiles based on the CFCS variables were more predictive of eating behaviors. However, the profiles based on the combination of both CFCS and ZTPI were more predictive of smoking, exercising, and health intentions than the profiles based solely on the CFCS. The variation in walking was explained only by the profiles based on a combination of CFCS and ZTPI.
This study demonstrates the relationship among attitude, knowledge and consideration set size (set size) and how these variables influence consumption frequency of fish. The proposed model was tested with cross-sectional data from a representative study of about 1100 Danish consumers. Structural equation modeling (LISREL) was used in order to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of all relationships. The results of this study verify consideration set size as a partial mediator between both attitude and frequency and knowledge and frequency. Knowledge is suggested to be more important than attitude in forming the size of the consideration set. The size of the set is positively related to frequency of fish consumption, but with somewhat less direct effect than attitude and knowledge.
This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes.