Skip header and navigation

5 records – page 1 of 1.

Academic detailing has no effect on prescribing of asthma medication in Danish general practice: a 3-year randomized controlled trial with 12-monthly follow-ups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15166
Source
Fam Pract. 2004 Jun;21(3):248-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Klaus Witt
Erik Knudsen
Susanne Ditlevsen
Hanne Hollnagel
Author Affiliation
Department of General Practice, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. k.witt@gpmed.ku.dk
Source
Fam Pract. 2004 Jun;21(3):248-53
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - drug therapy
Denmark
Education, Medical, Continuing
Educational Status
Family Practice
Humans
Physician's Practice Patterns
Practice Guidelines
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Educational outreach visits, particularly when combined with social marketing, appear to be a promising approach to modifying health professional behaviour, especially prescribing. Results from previous studies have shown a varying effect. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of academic detailing as a method of implementing a clinical guideline in general practice. METHODS: A cluster randomized, controlled, blinded study was carried out of the effect of an academic detail visit compared with postal distribution of a guideline for prescribing asthma medication. Half the practices in a Danish county with 100 practices were visited once. The outcome measure was routinely collected data from all Danish pharmacies on the sales of asthma medication. Data were collected monthly for 2 years before to 1 year after the intervention. RESULTS: There was no effect on the pattern of prescription of asthma medicines following the visit, neither immediately nor long term. CONCLUSION: We found no effect of academic detailing as a single intervention.
PubMed ID
15128684 View in PubMed
Less detail

The mediation proportion: a structural equation approach for estimating the proportion of exposure effect on outcome explained by an intermediate variable.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70811
Source
Epidemiology. 2005 Jan;16(1):114-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Susanne Ditlevsen
Ulla Christensen
John Lynch
Mogens Trab Damsgaard
Niels Keiding
Author Affiliation
Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. S.Ditlevsen@pubhealth.ku.dk
Source
Epidemiology. 2005 Jan;16(1):114-20
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Algorithms
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Interferon-alpha - therapeutic use
Longitudinal Studies
Macular Degeneration - drug therapy - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
It is often of interest to assess how much of the effect of an exposure on a response is mediated through an intermediate variable. However, systematic approaches are lacking, other than assessment of a surrogate marker for the endpoint of a clinical trial. We review a measure of "proportion explained" in the context of observational epidemiologic studies. The measure has been much debated; we show how several of the drawbacks are alleviated when exposures, mediators, and responses are continuous and are embedded in a structural equation framework. These conditions also allow for consideration of several intermediate variables. Binary or categorical variables can be included directly through threshold models. We call this measure the mediation proportion, that is, the part of an exposure effect on outcome explained by a third, intermediate variable. Two examples illustrate the approach. The first example is a randomized clinical trial of the effects of interferon-alpha on visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration. In this example, the exposure, mediator and response are all binary. The second example is a common problem in social epidemiology-to find the proportion of a social class effect on a health outcome that is mediated by psychologic variables. Both the mediator and the response are composed of several ordered categorical variables, with confounders present. Finally, we extend the example to more than one mediator.
Notes
Comment In: Epidemiology. 2005 Jul;16(4):59215951684
Comment In: Epidemiology. 2005 Sep;16(5):71016135954
PubMed ID
15613954 View in PubMed
Less detail

Some like it cold: Temperature-dependent habitat selection by narwhals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305129
Source
Ecol Evol. 2020 Aug; 10(15):8073-8090
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2020
Author
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Susanna B Blackwell
Terrie M Williams
Mikkel Holger S Sinding
Mikkel Skovrind
Outi M Tervo
Eva Garde
Rikke G Hansen
Nynne H Nielsen
M?nh Cu?ng Ngô
Susanne Ditlevsen
Author Affiliation
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources Copenhagen Denmark.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2020 Aug; 10(15):8073-8090
Date
Aug-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) is a high-Arctic species inhabiting areas that are experiencing increases in sea temperatures, which together with reduction in sea ice are expected to modify the niches of several Arctic marine apex predators. The Scoresby Sound fjord complex in East Greenland is the summer residence for an isolated population of narwhals. The movements of 12 whales instrumented with Fastloc-GPS transmitters were studied during summer in Scoresby Sound and at their offshore winter ground in 2017-2019. An additional four narwhals provided detailed hydrographic profiles on both summer and winter grounds. Data on diving of the whales were obtained from 20 satellite-linked time-depth recorders and 16 Acousonde™ recorders that also provided information on the temperature and depth of buzzes. In summer, the foraging whales targeted depths between 300 and 850 m where the preferred areas visited by the whales had temperatures ranging between 0.6 and 1.5°C (mean = 1.1°C, SD = 0.22). The highest probability of buzzing activity during summer was at a temperature of 0.7°C and at depths > 300 m. The whales targeted similar depths at their offshore winter ground where the temperature was slightly higher (range: 0.7-1.7°C, mean = 1.3°C, SD = 0.29). Both the probability of buzzing events and the spatial distribution of the whales in both seasons demonstrated a preferential selection of cold water. This was particularly pronounced in winter where cold coastal water was selected and warm Atlantic water farther offshore was avoided. It is unknown if the small temperature niche of whales while feeding is because prey is concentrated at these temperature gradients and is easier to capture at low temperatures, or because there are limitations in the thermoregulation of the whales. In any case, the small niche requirements together with their strong site fidelity emphasize the sensitivity of narwhals to changes in the thermal characteristics of their habitats.
PubMed ID
32788962 View in PubMed
Less detail

Spatial and temporal patterns of sound production in East Greenland narwhals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292307
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Susanna B Blackwell
Outi M Tervo
Alexander S Conrad
Mikkel H S Sinding
Rikke G Hansen
Susanne Ditlevsen
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Greeneridge Sciences, Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Changes in climate are rapidly modifying the Arctic environment. As a result, human activities-and the sounds they produce-are predicted to increase in remote areas of Greenland, such as those inhabited by the narwhals (Monodon monoceros) of East Greenland. Meanwhile, nothing is known about these whales' acoustic behavior or their reactions to anthropogenic sounds. This lack of knowledge was addressed by instrumenting six narwhals in Scoresby Sound (Aug 2013-2016) with Acousonde™ acoustic tags and satellite tags. Continuous recordings over up to seven days were used to describe the acoustic behavior of the whales, in particular their use of three types of sounds serving two different purposes: echolocation clicks and buzzes, which serve feeding, and calls, presumably used for social communication. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of location in time and space on buzzing and calling rates. Buzzes were mostly produced at depths of 350-650 m and buzzing rates were higher in one particular fjord, likely a preferred feeding area. Calls generally occurred at shallower depths (
Notes
Cites: J Exp Biol. 2014 Dec 15;217(Pt 24):4279-82 PMID 25394631
Cites: BMC Ecol. 2007 Nov 19;7:14 PMID 18021441
Cites: J Exp Biol. 2006 Dec;209(Pt 24):5038-50 PMID 17142692
Cites: Anim Behav. 1998 Oct;56(4):829-838 PMID 9790693
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2005 Jun;117(6):3919-27 PMID 16018493
Cites: Anim Behav. 1999 Jan;57(1):41-50 PMID 10053070
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2006 Sep;120(3):1695-705 PMID 17004490
Cites: Biol Lett. 2016 Oct;12 (10 ): PMID 27784729
Cites: Science. 2017 Dec 8;358(6368):1328-1331 PMID 29217577
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Nov 7;271(1554):2239-47 PMID 15539349
Cites: J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2013 Jun;199(6):451-69 PMID 23636808
Cites: J Exp Biol. 2009 Oct 1;212(19):3100-7 PMID 19749102
Cites: J Acoust Soc Am. 2014 Sep;136(3):1394 PMID 25190412
Cites: Heredity (Edinb). 1997 Mar;78 ( Pt 3):284-92 PMID 9119704
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28353 PMID 22163295
Cites: Curr Biol. 2016 Jun 6;26(11):1441-6 PMID 27238281
Cites: Biol Lett. 2016 Aug;12 (8): PMID 27512131
Cites: PLoS One. 2016 Nov 9;11(11):e0162069 PMID 27828956
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2004 Dec 7;271 Suppl 6:S383-6 PMID 15801582
PubMed ID
29897955 View in PubMed
Less detail

Spatial and temporal patterns of sound production in East Greenland narwhals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296868
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Susanna B Blackwell
Outi M Tervo
Alexander S Conrad
Mikkel H S Sinding
Rikke G Hansen
Susanne Ditlevsen
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Greeneridge Sciences, Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Arctic Regions
Echolocation - physiology
Female
Greenland
Logistic Models
Male
Sound Spectrography - instrumentation - methods
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Vocalization, Animal - physiology
Whales - physiology
Abstract
Changes in climate are rapidly modifying the Arctic environment. As a result, human activities-and the sounds they produce-are predicted to increase in remote areas of Greenland, such as those inhabited by the narwhals (Monodon monoceros) of East Greenland. Meanwhile, nothing is known about these whales' acoustic behavior or their reactions to anthropogenic sounds. This lack of knowledge was addressed by instrumenting six narwhals in Scoresby Sound (Aug 2013-2016) with Acousonde™ acoustic tags and satellite tags. Continuous recordings over up to seven days were used to describe the acoustic behavior of the whales, in particular their use of three types of sounds serving two different purposes: echolocation clicks and buzzes, which serve feeding, and calls, presumably used for social communication. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of location in time and space on buzzing and calling rates. Buzzes were mostly produced at depths of 350-650 m and buzzing rates were higher in one particular fjord, likely a preferred feeding area. Calls generally occurred at shallower depths (
PubMed ID
29897955 View in PubMed
Less detail