Maternal age is an established risk factor for cesarean section; epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation may modify this association. We investigated the effects and interactions of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia and maternal age on the risk of cesarean section.
In all, 416 386 nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor, =37 weeks of gestation and singleton infants with a cephalic presentation during 2000-2011 from Norway and Denmark were included [Ten-group classification system (Robson) group 1]. In this case-control study the main exposure was maternal age; epidural analgesia, oxytocin augmentation, birthweight and time period were explanatory variables. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to estimate associations and interactions.
The cesarean section rate increased consistently with advancing maternal age, both overall and in strata of epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation. We observed strong interactions between maternal age, oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia for the risk of cesarean section. Women with epidural analgesia generally had a reduced adjusted odds ratio when oxytocin was used compared with when it was not used. In Norway, this applied to all maternal age groups but in Denmark only for women =30 years. Among women without epidural, oxytocin augmentation was associated with an increased odds ratio for cesarean section in Denmark, whereas no difference was observed in Norway.
Oxytocin augmentation in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia is associated with a reduced risk of cesarean section in labor with spontaneous onset.
To assess the effect of the time interval from indication of hypoxia to delivery on neonatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies monitored with cardiotocography (CTG) and ST-waveform analysis.
Prospective observational study.
University hospital, Norway, 2004-08.
Singleton high-risk births with a gestational age above 35(+6) weeks, monitored with CTG and ST-waveform analysis.
Logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival plots.
Neonatal morbidity in relation to the rapidity of intervention.
Of 6010 deliveries monitored with ST-waveform analysis, 1131 (19%) had an indication to intervene for fetal distress according to clinical guidelines. Those fetuses were at increased risk of an adverse neonatal outcome, and if delivered later than 20 min after the indication of hypoxia their risk increased further; i.e. transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.2) to an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.3). The indication-to-delivery interval was longer for neonates with a 5-min Apgar score of
BACKGROUND: External cephalic version could be an alternative to either vaginal delivery or caesarean section in breech presentation at term. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature review about external cephalic version in breech presentation. RESULTS: The numbers of breech presentation delivered by caesarean section could probably be reduced in Norway by offering version, but this would not affect perinatal mortality.
To evaluate the clinical use of ST analysis (STAN) for intrapartum monitoring of high-risk pregnancies.
Prospective observational study.
University hospital, Norway, 2004-2008.
Singleton pregnancies with a gestational age above 35(+6) weeks.
Analysis of maternal and neonatal outcomes for all deliveries according to the method of intrapartum monitoring.
Prevalence of cord metabolic acidosis (pH 12 mmol/L).
Of 23 203 deliveries, 6010 (25.9%) were monitored with STAN. Fetal blood sampling was performed in 146 (2.4%) of the 6010 cases. During the study period, the prevalence of cord metabolic acidosis and moderate cord acidosis (pH
The objective of this study was to examine the association between planned mode of delivery and neonatal outcomes in breech deliveries.
In this retrospective cohort study we studied singleton term breech deliveries in Norway from 1991 to 2011 (n = 30 861) using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We compared planned vaginal delivery with planned cesarean delivery across two time periods: from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2000 (first period) and from 1 November 2000 to 31 December 2011 (second period). Intrapartum and neonatal deaths were validated against source data in medical records, autopsy reports, and other relevant documents. The main outcome measures were intrapartum and neonatal mortality within the first 28 days of life, 5-min Apgar-scores
The English questionnaire Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and nausea (PUQE) identifies women with severe Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Our aim was to investigate whether scores from the translated Norwegian version; SUKK (SvangerskapsUtløst Kvalme Kvantifisering) was associated with severity of hyperemesis and nutritional intake.
A prospective cohort validation study.
Hospital cohort of Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) patients from western Norway and healthy pregnant women from Bergen, Norway.
38 women hospitalized due to HG and 31 healthy pregnant controls attending routine antenatal check-up at health centers.
Data were collected May 2013-January 2014. The study participants answered the Norwegian PUQE-questionnaire (scores ranging from 3 to 15) and registered prospectively 24-hours nutritional intake by a food list form.
Differences of PUQE-scores, QOL-score and nutritional intake between hyperemesis patients and controls.
Hyperemesis patients had shorter gestational age compared to controls (median 9.7 weeks; 95% CI 8.6-10.6 versus 11.9; 95% CI 10.1-12.9, p=0.004), and larger weight-change from pre-pregnant weight (loss of median 3 kg; 95% CI 3-4 versus gain of 2 kg; 95% CI 0.5-2, p
OBJECTIVE: To relate unexplained antepartum fetal death with maternal and fetal characteristics in order to identify risk factors. DESIGN: Population-based study based on records of 1,676,160 singleton births with gestational age > or =28 weeks. Unexplained antepartum fetal death was defined as fetal death before labour without known fetal, placental, or maternal pathology. RESULTS: Although unexplained fetal mortality in general declined from 2.4 per 1000 births in 1967-1976 to 1.6 in 1977-1998, the proportion among all fetal deaths increased from 30% to 43% during the same period of observation. Unexplained fetal death occurred later in gestation than explained. From 39 weeks of gestation, the risk increased progressively to 50/10,000 in women aged > or =35 years and or =5, the risk was particularly high after 39 weeks of gestation. For birth weight percentile 2.5-9.9 and > or =97.5, unexplained fetal death was four and three times more likely to occur, respectively. We found an additive effect of maternal age and birth weight percentile 2.5-9.9. Women with less than 10 years education had higher risk than women with 13 years or more (OR=1.6). Weaker associations were observed with female gender, unmarried mothers, and winter season. CONCLUSIONS: Unexplained antepartum fetal death occurred later in gestation than explained and was associated with high maternal age, multiparity, low education, and moderately low and high birth weight percentile. The increased risk in post-term pregnancies and the additive effect of maternal age and birth weight percentile 2.5-9.9 suggests that older women would benefit from monitoring of fetal growth.