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A quantitative analysis of biodiversity and the recreational value of potential national parks in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93560
Source
Environ Manage. 2008 May;41(5):685-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Larsen Frank Wugt
Petersen Anders Højgård
Strange Niels
Lund Mette Palitzsch
Rahbek Carsten
Author Affiliation
Center for Macroecology, Institute of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. fwlarsen@bio.ku.dk
Source
Environ Manage. 2008 May;41(5):685-95
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources - statistics & numerical data
Denmark
Pilot Projects
Recreation
Abstract
Denmark has committed itself to the European 2010 target to halt the loss of biodiversity. Currently, Denmark is in the process of designating larger areas as national parks, and 7 areas (of a possible 32 larger nature areas) have been selected for pilot projects to test the feasibility of establishing national parks. In this article, we first evaluate the effectiveness of the a priori network of national parks proposed through expert and political consensus versus a network chosen specifically for biodiversity through quantitative analysis. Second, we analyze the potential synergy between preserving biodiversity in terms of species representation and recreational values in selecting a network of national parks. We use the actual distribution of 973 species within these 32 areas and 4 quantitative measures of recreational value. Our results show that the 7 pilot project areas are not significantly more effective in representing species than expected by chance and that considerably more efficient networks can be selected. Moreover, it is possible to select more-effective networks of areas that combine high representation of species with high ranking in terms of recreational values. Therefore, our findings suggest possible synergies between outdoor recreation and biodiversity conservation when selecting networks of national parks. Overall, this Danish case illustrates that data-driven analysis can not only provide valuable information to guide the decision-making process of designating national parks, but it can also be a means to identify solutions that simultaneously fulfill several goals (biodiversity preservation and recreational values).
PubMed ID
18299919 View in PubMed
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Transaction costs economics of irreplaceability: ex ante and ex post evaluation of conservation networks' vulnerability to environmental shocks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93774
Source
Environ Manage. 2008 Apr;41(4):551-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Huusom Henrik
Strange Niels
Author Affiliation
Statistical Department, Copenhagen University, Faculty of Life Sciences, Institute of Food and Resource Economics, Rolighedsvej 25, Frederiksberg, DK 1958, Denmark. hh@foi.dk
Source
Environ Manage. 2008 Apr;41(4):551-65
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics
Costs and Cost Analysis
Denmark
Public Policy
Abstract
The theoretical concept, "asset specificity," is applied to real data in the context of Danish nature conservation network planning in order to produce illustrative examples of an economic measure of the network's vulnerability to exogenous shocks to the species composition. Three different measures of asset specificity are quantified from the shadow value of eliminating a key species from the individual grid cells. This represents a novel approach and a different interpretation of the term, as it is conventionally used as a qualitative indicator in the transaction cost economics literature. Apart from supplementing existing cost measures with an indicator of risk associated with investments in protected areas, this study demonstrates how the estimation and interpretation of various asset specificity measures for geographical areas may qualify policy makers' choice of policy instrument in conservation planning. This differs from the more intuitive approach of basing policy instrument choice solely on the rarity of the species in a given area.
PubMed ID
18183457 View in PubMed
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Value for money: protecting endangered species on Danish heathland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87758
Source
Environ Manage. 2007 Nov;40(5):761-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2007
Author
Strange Niels
Jacobsen Jette B
Thorsen Bo J
Tarp Peter
Author Affiliation
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958, Frederiksberg, Denmark. NST@life.ku.dk
Source
Environ Manage. 2007 Nov;40(5):761-74
Date
Nov-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Denmark
Extinction, Biological
Geography
Resource Allocation - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Abstract
Biodiversity policies in the European Union (EU) are mainly implemented through the Birds and Habitats Directives as well as the establishment of Natura 2000, a network of protected areas throughout the EU. Considerable resources must be allocated for fulfilling the Directives and the question of optimal allocation is as important as it is difficult. In general, economic evaluations of conservation targets at most consider the costs and seldom the welfare economic benefits. In the present study, we use welfare economic benefit estimates concerning the willingness-to-pay for preserving endangered species and for the aggregate area of heathland preserved in Denmark. Similarly, we obtain estimates of the welfare economic cost of habitat restoration and maintenance. Combining these welfare economic measures with expected species coverage, we are able to estimate the potential welfare economic contribution of a conservation network. We compare three simple nonprobabilistic strategies likely to be used in day-to-day policy implementation: i) a maximum selected area strategy, ii) a hotspot selection strategy, and iii) a minimizing cost strategy, and two more advanced and informed probabilistic strategies: i) a maximum expected coverage strategy and ii) a strategy for maximum expected welfare economic gain. We show that the welfare economic performance of the strategies differ considerably. The comparison between the expected coverage and expected welfare shows that for the case considered, one may identify an optimal protection level above which additional coverage only comes at increasing welfare economic loss.
PubMed ID
17906890 View in PubMed
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