AIM: To estimate the risk of diabetic nephropathy and associated risk factors in a nationwide cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 19-30 yr of diabetes duration. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with childhood-onset T1DM ( 200 microg/min, respectively] in at least two out of three consecutive overnight urine samples were defined as diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: Overt nephropathy was found in 7.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.7-10.9] and persistent microalbuminuria in 14.9% (95% CI 10.8-19.0) of the subjects. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (BP) (p = 0.002), total cholesterol (p = 0.019), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.019) were associated with diabetic nephropathy. Significant predictors in 1989-1990 for the development of diabetic nephropathy in 2002-2003 were HbA1c (p
OBJECTIVE: We have previously described an association between use of cod liver oil (a dietary n-3 fatty acid supplement) and reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. n-3 fatty acids are ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), which has recently been implicated in the control of inflammation and possibly autoimmunity. We aimed to estimate the association between the common Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG2 and risk of type 1 diabetes, and to test whether there is gene-environment interaction with use of cod liver oil in the first year of life or gene-gene interaction with the established insulin gene (INS) and human leukocyte antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genetic susceptibility loci. METHODS: We designed a population-based case-control study of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Norway with information on use of cod liver oil in the first year of life from questionnaires and PPARG2 genotype data for 483 cases and 1520 control subjects. We used logistic regression for analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the PPARG2 Ala/Ala or Pro/Ala vs. Pro/Pro genotype and type 1 diabetes was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.69-1.13, p = 0.33). There was no significant interaction with cod liver oil in the first year of life [P (interaction) = 0.35] or with the INS polymorphism [P(interaction) = 0.42]. CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between PPARG2 and type 1 diabetes was not significant, the observed odds ratio was almost identical to that observed in two previous studies and can contribute to meta-analysis indicating a weak but significant association. Our hypothesized interaction between cod liver oil and PPARG2 in reducing type 1 diabetes risk was not supported.
OBJECTIVE: We have investigated age-period-cohort effects and spatial and temporal trends for the incidence of type 1 diabetes among 0- to 14-year-old children in Norway. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included children with the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in Norway during 1973-1982 and 1989-2003. We studied age, calendar period, and birth cohort effects using Poisson regression, including Holford's method of parameterization, to model the dependencies between age, period, and cohort effects. To study spatiotemporal clustering of cases, we used spatial scan statistics. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate for the study population
High prevalences of vitamin D deficiency have been reported in non-Western immigrants moving to Western countries, including Norway, but there is limited information on vitamin D status in infants born to immigrant mothers. We aimed to describe the vitamin D status and potentially correlated factors among infants aged 6 weeks and their mothers with Pakistani, Turkish or Somali background attending child health clinics in Norway. Eighty-six healthy infants and their mothers with immigrant background were recruited at the routine 6-week check-up at nine centres between 2004 and 2006. Venous or capillary blood was collected at the clinics from the mother and infant, and serum separated for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH). The mean maternal s-25(OH)D was 25.8 nmol/l, with 57 % below 25 nmol/l and 15 % below 12.5 nmol/l. Of the mothers, 26 % had s-iPTH>5.7 pmol/l. For infants, mean s-25(OH)D was 41.7 nmol/l, with 47 % below 25 nmol/l and 34 % below 12.5 nmol/l. s-25(OH)D was considerably lower in the thirty-one exclusively breast-fed infants (mean 11.1 nmol/l; P