ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are a worldwide public health burden. The literature concerning the mental health benefits from physical activity among adults has grown. Adolescents are less studied, and especially longitudinal studies are lacking. This paper investigates the associations between weekly hours of physical activity at age 15-16 and mental health three years later. METHODS: Longitudinal self-reported health survey. The baseline study consisted of participants from the youth section of the Oslo Health Study, carried out in schools in 2000-2001 (n = 3811). The follow-up in 2003-2004 was conducted partly at school and partly through mail. A total of 2489 (1112 boys and 1377 girls) participated in the follow-up. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with an impact supplement. Physical activity was measured by a question on weekly hours of physical activity outside of school, defined as exertion 'to an extent that made you sweat and/or out of breath'. Adjustments were made for well-documented confounders and mental health at baseline. RESULTS: In boys, the number of hours spent on physical activity per week at age 15-16 was negatively associated with emotional symptoms [B (95%CI)=-0.09 (-0.15, -0.03)] and peer problems [B (95%CI)=-0.08 (-0.14, -0.03)] at age 18-19 after adjustments. In girls, there were no significant differences in SDQ subscales at age 18-19 according to weekly hours of physical activity at age 15-16 after adjustments. Boys and girls with five to seven hours of physical activity per week at age 15-16 had the lowest mean scores for total difficulties and the lowest percentage with high impact score at age 18-19, but the differences were not statistically significant after adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Weekly hours of physical activity at age 15-16 years was weakly associated with mental health at three-year follow-up in boys. Results encourage a search for further knowledge about physical activity as a possible protective factor in relation to mental health problems in adolescence.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about ethnic disparities in mental health during late teens. The aim of this study was to compare changes in self reported mental health between adolescents with ethnic Norwegian and ethnic minority background aged 15-16 years followed for three years. METHODS: The youth part of the Oslo Health Study constituted the baseline of this self-reported longitudinal study, carried out in schools in 2001 (n = 3811). The follow-up in 2004 was conducted partly in school and partly through mail. A total of 2489 (1112 boys and 1377 girls) participated in the follow-up. Twenty percent of the participants had an ethnic minority background. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10). RESULTS: Ethnic minority boys and girls reported poorer mental health than ethnic Norwegians of the same sex, both at baseline and follow-up. Exceptions were hyperactivity-inattention problems and prosocial behaviours where no differences were found. Consistent changes from baseline to follow-up were; an increase in mental distress and prosocial behaviour. No ethnic disparities were found for changes in mental health from ages 15 to 18 between the two groups. There was no different effect of perceived family economy, parents' marital status and socioeconomic region of residence in Oslo on change in mental health between ethnic Norwegian and ethnic minority boys and girls from age 15 to 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic disparities in mental health remained the same from age 15-16 and throughout teenage years. Demographic factors adjusted for had no different impact on changes in mental health between host and immigrant adolescents.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD) in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. METHODS: Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions - East and West, were used. RESULTS: Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score
PURPOSE: To assess 1-year prevalence, incidence rates and minimum refill of anti-osteoporosis drug use in Norway by age, gender and place of residence during 2004-2007. METHODS: Data from patients aged >/= 40 years receiving anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD) were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). AOD were defined as bisphosphonates (alendronate with or without cholecalciferol, risedronate, ibandronate and etidronate with or without calcium), raloxifene, teriparatide and nasal calcitonin. The NorPD covers the total Norwegian population in ambulatory care. Key measurements were 1-year prevalence, incidence rate and minimum refill. RESULTS: Among Norwegian women and men >/= 40 years, 4.3 and 0.45% respectively used AOD in 2004. In 2007, the prevalence of AOD use had slightly increased to 4.6% in women and to 0.52% in men. In 2007, 90% of users were women. The use of alendronate, representing 88% of all AOD use in 2007, increased from 2004 to 2007 while the use of other bisphosphonates decreased. The counties with highest overall bisphosphonate use were the counties with the historically lowest incidence of osteoporotic fractures. The incidence rate of overall bisphosphonate use decreased from 2005 to 2007. Among those patients who were dispensed a bisphosphonate in 2005, 72% refilled at least one prescription both in 2006 and 2007. CONCLUSION: There was an increasing prevalence and a decreasing incidence of AOD use over this limited time period. There was substantial geographical variation in the prevalence of anti-osteoporosis drugs. We also observed a high minimum refill rate.