Dietary intake of naturally occurring plant sterols is inversely related to serum cholesterol concentrations. Elevated serum cholesterol increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but it is unknown if this can be reduced by dietary intake of naturally occurring plant sterols. Our aim was to investigate if a high intake of naturally occurring plant sterols is related to a lower risk of contracting a first MI. The analysis included 1005 prospective cases (219 women, 786 men) and 3148 matched referents (723 women, 2425 men), aged 29-73 y at baseline, from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed at baseline. Absolute plant sterol intake was inversely related to the risk of a first MI in men (OR highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85; P-trend = 0.006) but not in women. After adjustment for confounders, the estimated risk was somewhat attenuated (OR highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92; P-trend = 0.067), suggesting that increasing sterol intake from 150 to 340 mg/d reduces the risk of a first MI by 29%. Energy-adjusted plant sterol intake was not related to the risk of a first MI in either men or women. In conclusion, the findings of this observational study show that a high absolute intake of naturally occurring plant sterols is significantly related to a lower risk of a first MI in men in northern Sweden, whereas no significant relation was seen for energy-adjusted plant sterol intake. In women, no significant associations were found. The results from this study show that intake of plant sterols may be important in prevention of MI.
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 459, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. email@example.com
To evaluate plant sterol intake estimated with the eighty-four-item Northern Sweden FFQ against repeated 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) as the reference method.
Randomly recruited participants from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) responded to an FFQ (FFQ1). Over the subsequent 12 months, ten repeated 24-HDR were carried out. After this, a second FFQ (FFQ2) was completed.
Västerbotten county, northern Sweden.
Ninety-six men and ninety-nine women.
The Pearson correlation coefficient for absolute total plant sterol intake estimated with FFQ1 and 24-HDR was 0.58 and 0.55 for the men and women, respectively. Cross-classification of participants into quartiles of absolute plant sterol intake estimated with FFQ1 and 24-HDR showed that 90% of the men and 83% of the women were classified into the same or an adjacent quartile. For energy-adjusted plant sterol intake, 71% of the men and 74% of the women were classified into the same or an adjacent quartile. The agreement for cross-classification of participants into quartiles between FFQ1 and FFQ2 was good for both absolute and energy-adjusted plant sterol intake.
The FFQ is able to capture absolute plant sterol intake to the same extent as other nutrients, and to rank individuals according to both their absolute and energy-adjusted plant sterol intake. The reproducibility of the FFQ was good, suggesting that the method is reliable. This makes it possible to use plant sterol data from the FFQ in large-scale studies of the association between plant sterol intake and disease.
Despite solid evidence of an association between centralized body fatness and subsequent disease risk, little is known about the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. Recently it was shown that large hip circumference (HC), measured once, was protective against total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women but that gain or loss in HC was unrelated to these outcomes. This study examines whether a 6-year change in waist circumference (WC) predicts mortality and CVD in the same study sample.
Baseline WC and 6-year change in WC as predictors of mortality and CVD were analyzed in 2,492 women from the Danish MONICA study and the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden.
Increase in WC was significantly associated with increased subsequent mortality and CVD adjusting for BMI and other covariates, with some evidence of a J-shaped association. Associations between increase in WC and outcomes were restricted to women with normal weight at baseline and to ever-smokers.
In contrast to changes in HC which did not predict mortality and CVD, a 6-year increase in WC is strongly predictive, particularly among initially lean women and ever-smokers. This implies the importance of developing strategies to prevent central fat deposition.
To describe the introduction of complementary foods in a population-based cohort in relation to recommendations and explore the possible impact of maternal education on infant feeding practices.
Prospective data from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort study were used. The ABIS study invited all infants born in south-east Sweden during October 1997-October 1999 (n 21 700) to participate. A questionnaire was completed for 16 022 infants. During the infants' first year parents continuously filed in a diary covering introduction of foods.
Infants (n 9727) with completed food diaries.
Potatoes, vegetables, fruits/berries and porridge were the foods first introduced, with a median introduction between 19 and 22 weeks, followed by introduction of meat, cow's milk, follow-on formula and sour milk/yoghurt between 24 and 27 weeks. Early introduction of any food, before 16 weeks, occurred for 27 % of the infants and was more common in infants of mothers with low education. Overall, potatoes (14·7 %), vegetables (11·1 %), fruits/berries (8·5 %), porridge (7·4 %) and follow-on formula (2·7 %) were the foods most frequently introduced early. The majority of infants (=70 %) were introduced to potatoes, vegetables, fruits/berries and porridge during concurrent breast-feeding, but introduction during concurrent breast-feeding was less common in infants of mothers with low education.
Most infants were introduced to complementary foods timely in relation to recommendations. Low maternal education was associated with earlier introduction of complementary foods and less introduction during concurrent breast-feeding. Still, the results indicated exposure to fewer foods at 12 months in infants of mothers with low education.
The etiology of asthma includes lifestyle factors. Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods have been suggested to affect asthma risk, but the scientific foundation is not solid. Children from the birth cohort All Babies In Southeast Sweden study were included (n?=?9727). Breastfeeding duration and timing of introduction of infant formula and food were collected prospectively during the first year. Through linkage to the Swedish Patient Register, 948 children were identified with any asthma until age 15-17 years, of which 450 cases were atopic. Breastfeeding duration was not associated to risk of asthma. Introduction of infant formula earlier than at 14 weeks of age was associated with higher risk of non-atopic asthma. Introduction of fish before 43 weeks of age, as compared to later, was associated with a lower risk of asthma, irrespective of atopic classification. Reverse causation was accounted for but did not explain the results.Conclusion: Introduction of infant formula and timing of introduction of fish seem to impact the long-term risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Emphasis on the growing body of evidence that early introduction of allergens offers protection against atopic disease should be considered in future recommendations. What is Known: • Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods might influence the risk of atopic diseases. Recently, a review stated that more studies are needed to clarify the role for asthma development. What is New: • Introduction of infant formula earlier than at 14 weeks of age was associated with a higher risk of developing non-atopic asthma. The risk was pronounced in children introduced to infant formula before 4 weeks of age while being breastfed less than 4 weeks. • Early fish introduction, before 43 weeks of age, was associated with a lower risk of asthma, independent of atopic classification of asthma.
Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk.
In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (Â±1) years apart in the population-based VÃ¤sterbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses.
For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40Â year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30Â year-olds and highest fat increase among 60Â year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P?
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High parity has been suggested to increase risk of maternal cardiovascular disease independent of body mass index measured after childbearing. Pregnancy is, however, associated with persistent weight gain and metabolic changes that, independent of parity, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It could therefore be questioned if high parity independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease or if this association may be confounded, mediated, or modified by other parity-related factors.
We sought to investigate the association between parity and risk of cardiovascular disease, and secondary outcomes in terms of myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction, with particular focus on potential mediation by anthropometric measures and effect modification by lactation.
We used data from 16,515 female participants (age 44.5-73.6 years) of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study with baseline examination from 1991 through 1996. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study was followed up throughout 2010, with a median follow-up of 15.8 years. We used Cox proportional hazards model to examine the association between parity and cardiovascular disease.
Adjusted for age and other potential confounders, grand multiparous women (=5 children) had an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.14), myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.45), and cerebral infarction (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.58) compared to women with 2 children. Additional adjustment for baseline body mass index and weight change since age 20 years attenuated the risk, but the increased risk for cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.87) and myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.26) in grand multiparous women remained significant. Models stratified by lactation time showed that risk was only raised in grand multiparous women who had a mean lactation time of