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Bacterial diversity in Icelandic cold spring sources and in relation to the groundwater amphipod Crangonyx islandicus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308781
Source
PLoS One. 2019; 14(10):e0222527
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2019
Author
Ragnhildur Guðmundsdóttir
Agnes-Katharina Kreiling
Bjarni Kristófer Kristjánsson
Viggó Þór Marteinsson
Snæbjörn Pálsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Source
PLoS One. 2019; 14(10):e0222527
Date
2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Amphipoda - microbiology
Animals
Bacteria - genetics - growth & development
Biodiversity
Genetic Variation
Geography
Groundwater - microbiology
Iceland
Linear Models
Microbiota
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Abstract
Crangonyx islandicus is a groundwater amphipod endemic to Iceland, considered to have survived the Ice Ages in subglacial refugia. Currently the species is found in spring sources in lava fields along the tectonic plate boundary of the country. The discovery of a groundwater species in this inaccessible habitat indicates a hidden ecosystem possibly based on chemoautotrophic microorganisms as primary producers. To explore this spring ecosystem, we assessed its microbial diversity and analysed whether and how the diversity varied between the amphipods and the spring water, and if was dependent on environmental factors and geological settings. Isolated DNA from spring water and from amphipods was analysed using metabarcoding methods, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Two genera of bacteria, Halomonas and Shewanella were dominating in the amphipod samples in terms of relative abundance, but not in the groundwater samples where Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Alkanindiges among others were dominating. The richness of the bacteria taxa in the microbial community of the groundwater spring sources was shaped by pH level and the beta diversity was shaped by geographic locations.
PubMed ID
31577799 View in PubMed
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Disappearance of Icelandic Walruses Coincided with Norse Settlement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309038
Source
Mol Biol Evol. 2019 12 01; 36(12):2656-2667
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
12-01-2019
Author
Xénia Keighley
Snæbjörn Pálsson
Bjarni F Einarsson
Aevar Petersen
Meritxell Fernández-Coll
Peter Jordan
Morten Tange Olsen
Hilmar J Malmquist
Author Affiliation
Section for Evolutionary Genomics, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Mol Biol Evol. 2019 12 01; 36(12):2656-2667
Date
12-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Extinction, Biological
Genome, Mitochondrial
History, Medieval
Human Migration - history
Iceland
Phylogeography
Walruses - genetics
Abstract
There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the impacts of human arrival in new "pristine" environments, including terrestrial habitat alterations and species extinctions. However, the effects of marine resource utilization prior to industrialized whaling, sealing, and fishing have largely remained understudied. The expansion of the Norse across the North Atlantic offers a rare opportunity to study the effects of human arrival and early exploitation of marine resources. Today, there is no local population of walruses on Iceland, however, skeletal remains, place names, and written sources suggest that walruses existed, and were hunted by the Norse during the Settlement and Commonwealth periods (870-1262 AD). This study investigates the timing, geographic distribution, and genetic identity of walruses in Iceland by combining historical information, place names, radiocarbon dating, and genomic analyses. The results support a genetically distinct, local population of walruses that went extinct shortly after Norse settlement. The high value of walrus products such as ivory on international markets likely led to intense hunting pressure, which-potentially exacerbated by a warming climate and volcanism-resulted in the extinction of walrus on Iceland. We show that commercial hunting, economic incentives, and trade networks as early as the Viking Age were of sufficient scale and intensity to result in significant, irreversible ecological impacts on the marine environment. This is to one of the earliest examples of local extinction of a marine species following human arrival, during the very beginning of commercial marine exploitation.
PubMed ID
31513267 View in PubMed
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Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272032
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130847
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Lísa Anne Libungan
Aril Slotte
Åse Husebø
Jane A Godiksen
Snæbjörn Pálsson
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130847
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Atlantic Ocean
Crosses, Genetic
Estuaries
Female
Fishes - anatomy & histology - classification
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Lakes
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Otolithic Membrane - ultrastructure
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Sexual Behavior, Animal
Abstract
Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway.
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e014590026698572
PubMed ID
26101885 View in PubMed
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A major susceptibility gene for asthma maps to chromosome 14q24.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15355
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Sep;71(3):483-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
Hakon Hakonarson
Unnur S Bjornsdottir
Eva Halapi
Snaebjorn Palsson
Elva Adalsteinsdottir
David Gislason
Gudmundur Finnbogason
Thorarinn Gislason
Kristleifur Kristjansson
Thor Arnason
Illugi Birkisson
Michael L Frigge
Augustine Kong
Jeffrey R Gulcher
Kari Stefansson
Author Affiliation
deCODE Genetics, Inc., Reykjavik, Iceland. hakonh@decode.is
Source
Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Sep;71(3):483-91
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Asthma - genetics - physiopathology
Chromosome Mapping
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 - genetics
Databases, Factual
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Iceland
Lod Score
Male
Microsatellite Repeats - genetics
Pedigree
Respiratory Function Tests
Abstract
Asthma is a complex genetic disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype, largely attributed to the interactions among many genes and between these genes and the environment. Numerous loci and candidate genes have been reported to show linkage and association to asthma and atopy. Although some studies reporting these observations are compelling, no gene has been mapped that confers a sufficiently high risk of asthma to meet the stringent criteria for genomewide significance. Using 175 extended Icelandic families that included 596 patients with asthma, we performed a genomewide scan with 976 microsatellite markers. The families were identified by cross-matching a list of patients with asthma from the Department of Allergy/Pulmonary Medicine of the National University Hospital of Iceland with a genealogy database of the entire Icelandic nation. We detected linkage of asthma to chromosome 14q24, with an allele-sharing LOD score of 2.66. After we increased the marker density within the locus to an average of one microsatellite every 0.2 cM, the LOD score rose to 4.00. We designate this locus "asthma locus one" (AS1). Taken together, these results provide evidence of a novel susceptibility gene for asthma on chromosome 14q24.
PubMed ID
12119603 View in PubMed
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Population limitation in a non-cyclic arctic fox population in a changing climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268873
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Dec 29;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-29-2015
Author
Snæbjörn Pálsson
Páll Hersteinsson
Ester R Unnsteinsdóttir
Ólafur K Nielsen
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Dec 29;
Date
Dec-29-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus (L.) display a sharp 3- to 5-year fluctuation in population size where lemmings are their main prey. In areas devoid of lemmings, such as Iceland, they do not experience short-term fluctuations. This study focusses on the population dynamics of the arctic fox in Iceland and how it is shaped by its main prey populations. Hunting statistics from 1958-2003 show that the population size of the arctic fox was at a maximum in the 1950s, declined to a minimum in the 1970s, and increased steadily until 2003. Analysis of the arctic fox population size and their prey populations suggests that fox numbers were limited by rock ptarmigan numbers during the decline period. The recovery of the arctic fox population was traced mostly to an increase in goose populations, and favourable climatic conditions as reflected by the Subpolar Gyre. These results underscore the flexibility of a generalist predator and its responses to shifting food resources and climate changes.
PubMed ID
26714829 View in PubMed
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Population structure of Purple Sandpipers (Calidris maritima) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282402
Source
Ecol Evol. 2017 May;7(9):3225-3242
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Nathalie M LeBlanc
Donald T Stewart
Snaebjörn Pálsson
Mark F Elderkin
Glen Mittelhauser
Stephen Mockford
Julie Paquet
Gregory J Robertson
Ron W Summers
Lindsay Tudor
Mark L Mallory
Source
Ecol Evol. 2017 May;7(9):3225-3242
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima) is a medium-sized shorebird that breeds in the Arctic and winters along northern Atlantic coastlines. Migration routes and affiliations between breeding grounds and wintering grounds are incompletely understood. Some populations appear to be declining, and future management policies for this species will benefit from understanding their migration patterns. This study used two mitochondrial DNA markers and 10 microsatellite loci to analyze current population structure and historical demographic trends. Samples were obtained from breeding locations in Nunavut (Canada), Iceland, and Svalbard (Norway) and from wintering locations along the coast of Maine (USA), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland (Canada), and Scotland (UK). Mitochondrial haplotypes displayed low genetic diversity, and a shallow phylogeny indicating recent divergence. With the exception of the two Canadian breeding populations from Nunavut, there was significant genetic differentiation among samples from all breeding locations; however, none of the breeding populations was a monophyletic group. We also found differentiation between both Iceland and Svalbard breeding populations and North American wintering populations. This pattern of divergence is consistent with a previously proposed migratory pathway between Canadian breeding locations and wintering grounds in the United Kingdom, but argues against migration between breeding grounds in Iceland and Svalbard and wintering grounds in North America. Breeding birds from Svalbard also showed a genetic signature intermediate between Canadian breeders and Icelandic breeders. Our results extend current knowledge of Purple Sandpiper population genetic structure and present new information regarding migration routes to wintering grounds in North America.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28480021 View in PubMed
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RAD sequencing of common whelk, Buccinum undatum, reveals fine-scale population structuring in Europe and cryptic speciation within the North Atlantic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311083
Source
Ecol Evol. 2021 Mar; 11(6):2616-2629
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2021
Author
Jake Goodall
Kristen Marie Westfall
Hildur Magnúsdóttir
Snæbjörn Pálsson
Erla Björk Örnólfsdóttir
Zophonías O Jónsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Iceland Reykjavik Iceland.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2021 Mar; 11(6):2616-2629
Date
Mar-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Buccinum undatum is a subtidal gastropod that exhibits clear spatial variation in several phenotypic shell traits (color, shape, and thickness) across its North Atlantic distribution. Studies of spatial phenotypic variation exist for the species; however, population genetic studies have thus far relied on a limited set of mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. Here, we greatly expand on previous work by characterizing population genetic structure in B. undatum across the North Atlantic from SNP variation obtained by RAD sequencing. There was a high degree of genetic differentiation between Canadian and European populations (Iceland, Faroe Islands, and England) consistent with the divergence of populations in allopatry (FST > 0.57 for all pairwise comparisons). In addition, B. undatum populations within Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and England are typified by weak but significant genetic structuring following an isolation-by-distance model. Finally, we established a significant correlation between genetic structuring in Iceland and two phenotypic traits: shell shape and color frequency. The works detailed here enhance our understanding of genetic structuring in B. undatum and establish the species as an intriguing model for future genome-wide association studies.
PubMed ID
33767824 View in PubMed
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Two newly identified genetic determinants of pigmentation in Europeans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157134
Source
Nat Genet. 2008 Jul;40(7):835-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Patrick Sulem
Daniel F Gudbjartsson
Simon N Stacey
Agnar Helgason
Thorunn Rafnar
Margret Jakobsdottir
Stacy Steinberg
Sigurjon A Gudjonsson
Arnar Palsson
Gudmar Thorleifsson
Snaebjörn Pálsson
Bardur Sigurgeirsson
Kristin Thorisdottir
Rafn Ragnarsson
Kristrun R Benediktsdottir
Katja K Aben
Sita H Vermeulen
Alisa M Goldstein
Margaret A Tucker
Lambertus A Kiemeney
Jon H Olafsson
Jeffrey Gulcher
Augustine Kong
Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
Kari Stefansson
Author Affiliation
deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Nat Genet. 2008 Jul;40(7):835-7
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agouti Signaling Protein - genetics
Calcium Channels - genetics
Eye Color - genetics
Gene Frequency
Genetic Linkage
Genetics, Population
Hair - physiology
Haplotypes
Humans
Iceland
Melanosis - genetics
Netherlands
Odds Ratio
Pigmentation - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Solar System
Abstract
We present results from a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics among 5,130 Icelanders, with follow-up analyses in 2,116 Icelanders and 1,214 Dutch individuals. Two coding variants in TPCN2 are associated with hair color, and a variant at the ASIP locus shows strong association with skin sensitivity to sun, freckling and red hair, phenotypic characteristics similar to those affected by well-known mutations in MC1R.
Notes
Comment In: Nat Genet. 2008 Jul;40(7):817-818583973
PubMed ID
18488028 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.