The complex interaction of cold stress with environmental and organismic variables in exercising influence on human performance is a problem that still requires extensive investigation. Some relatively well-known interactions of cold with other stressors are reviewed. A description of the functioning of thermoregulative mechanisms in relation to cold stress and cold injury as a result of exposure in extreme climates is presented. Ways and means of counteracting cold stress to improve task performance are emphasized. The literature relating personnel selection, acclimatization, training, indoctrination, leadership, morale, and physical protection to the mitigation of cold stress and to measures of performance effectiveness is reviewed. Despite the paucity of meaningful data, it is felt that adequate and encouraging progress is being made in the understanding of the psychophysiology of cold stress.
Quantitative indices of group interaction were developed using a sociometric questionnaire for interpersonal work and social contacts, administered to 1853 Air Force personnel, comprising 123 work groups at 16 remote AC&W sites in Alaska. Nineteen sociometric indices, corrected statistically for group size were intercorrelated and analyzed by factor analysis and cluster analysis, yielding eight factors, six of which conform to the six clusters independently identified. The remaining two factors were each specific to a single variable. The factors were provisionally identified as follows: I. Interaction Extent, ll. Conformity to Command Structure, III. Cohesiveness of Work Groups, IV. Formal Cooperation I, VI. Interactions Outside Work Group, and VII. Formal Cooperation II. Factors V and VIII, identified by single variables, were not interpreted. These dimensions of group interaction may be useful in comparing groups differentiated on the basis of membership, organization, structure, environmental context, or performance criteria.
The annotated bibliographies in this series include the following titles issued as separate publications: I. The Basic Psychology of Group Behavior. II. Dimensions of Group Structure and Group Behavior. III. Environmental Stress and Behavior Ecology. IV. Organizational Staffing. V. Organizational Management and Leadership, VI. Leadership in Formal Groups.
In addition, a special methodological review of approaches to the analysis of sociometric data has been prepared as a separate report.
The present report, Basic Psychology of Group Behavior, is organized in six sections: A. General Studies and Reviews, B. Roles, Status and Intra-Group Interactions, C. Communication and Information, D. Individual Perceptions in Group Behavior, E. Attitudes and Attitude Change, and F. Methodological Studies.
PREFACE This annotated bibliography is part of a bibliographic study of research related to factors contributing to the effectiveness of AC&W sites in Alaska. The complete report will consist of a series of annotated bibliographies, as outlined below, and a series of summary reviews, following generally the same outline.
The review of literature was undertaken in a broad frame of reference, covering a wide range of variations in organizational type (e.g., from informal laboratory togetherness situations to formally organized, permanent organizations), size of group, type of mission, location, and type of personnel. This formulation not only makes possible the widest degree of generalization, but also permits the study of AC &W site problems in the perspective of principles, rather than of the limited empirical data available from polar research. The literature covered represents many disciplines, but primarily social psychology, sociology, and management. In addition, material has been drawn from other specialties of psychology, physiology, anthropology, geography, and medicine.
The annotated bibliographies in this series include the following titles, issued as separate publications: I. The Basic Psychology of Group Behavior, II. Dimensions of Group Structure and Group Behavior, III. Environmental Stress and Behavior Ecology, W. Organizational Staffing, v. Organizational Management and Leadership, VI. Leadership in Formal Groups.
A critical research review of behavioral effects of isolation, cold, and general stress, with particular reference to AC& W sites in Alaska. On the basis of the literature, environmental stress does not appear as a major threat to adjustment of troops stationed at AC& W sites. Human engineering has contributed greatly to the comfortization and control of the environment, and there appears to be a wide difference between conditions of the area and conditions of the specific work and living environment, except in cases of emergency. The possibility of such emergencies may be a threat, but few have occurred. The positive values of motivation, training 1 and group dynamics (including leadership) as factors which offset the disorganizing effects of environmental stress are pointed out.