Due to differences in food cultures, dietary quality measures, such as the Mediterranean Diet Score, may not be easily adopted by other countries. Recently, the Baltic Sea Diet Pyramid was developed to illustrate healthy choices for the diet consumed in the Nordic countries. We assessed whether the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) based on the Pyramid is associated with a decreased risk of obesity and abdominal obesity. The population-based cross-sectional study included 4720 Finns (25-74 years) from the National FINRISK 2007 study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, ratio of PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat (percentage of energy), and alcohol. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured and BMI values were calculated. In a multivariable model, men in the highest v. lowest BSDS quintile were more likely to have normal WC (OR 0·48, 95 % CI 0·29, 0·80). In women, this association was similar but not significant (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·09). The association appeared to be stronger in younger age groups (men: OR 0·23, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·62; women: OR 0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·58) compared with older age groups. Nordic cereals and alcohol were found to be the most important BSDS components related to WC. No association was observed between the BSDS and BMI. The present study suggests that combination of Nordic foods, especially cereals and moderate alcohol consumption, is likely to be inversely associated with abdominal obesity.
Studies indicate that the healthy Nordic diet may improve heart health, but its relation to weight change is less clear. We studied the association between the adherence to the healthy Nordic diet and long-term changes in weight, BMI and waist circumference. Furthermore, the agreement between self-reported and measured body anthropometrics was examined. The population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome Study in 2007 included 5024 Finns aged 25-75 years. The follow-up was conducted in 2014 (n 3735). One-third of the participants were invited to a health examination. The rest were sent measuring tape and written instructions along with questionnaires. The Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) was used to measure adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Association of the baseline BSDS and changes in BSDS during the follow-up with changes in body anthropometrics were examined using linear regression analysis. The agreement between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics was determined with Bland-Altman analysis. Intra-class correlation coefficients between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics exceeded 0·95. The baseline BSDS associated with lower weight (ß=-0·056, P=0·043) and BMI (ß=-0·021, P=0·031) over the follow-up. This association was especially evident among those who had increased their BSDS. In conclusion, both high initial and improved adherence to the healthy Nordic diet may promote long-term weight maintenance. The self-reported/measured anthropometrics were shown to have high agreement with nurse-measured values which adds the credibility of our results.
The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (ßindirect = 0.030-0.032, P
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-819828706
Cites: J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):831-420181787
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):504-1819959603
Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland Finnish Doctoral Program of Oral Sciences (FINDOS), Turku, Finland Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
Saxlin T, Ylöstalo P, Suominen-Taipale L, Männistö S, Knuuttila M. Association between periodontal infection and obesity: results of the Health 2000 Survey. J Clin Periodontol 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01677.x ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the role of periodontal infection in obesity in an adult population. Material and methods: This study was based on a subpopulation of the Health 2000 Survey that included dentate, non-diabetic subjects, aged 30-49 years (n=2784). Obesity was measured using the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC). The extent of periodontal infection was measured using the number of teeth with deepened (4 mm deep or deeper) periodontal pockets and was categorized into four categories (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7 or more). Results: The number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets was found to be associated with BMI in an exposure-response manner among the total study population. The association was found among men and women, and also among never-smokers. The number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets was also associated with BF% and WC among never-smokers. Conclusion: Periodontal infection measured by means of the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets appears to be associated with obesity. However, no inferences about causality can be made and further studies are needed to clarify the possible role of periodontal infection in obesity.
An association between vitamin B12 levels and depressive symptoms (DS) has been reported in several epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamin B12 levels in population-based samples with melancholic or non-melancholic DS as the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and different subtypes of DS has not been evaluated in previous studies.
Subjects without previously known type 2 diabetes, aged 45-74 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register as a part of the Finnish diabetes prevention programme (FIN-D2D). The study population (N?=?2806, participation rate 62%) consisted of 1328 men and 1478 women. The health examinations were carried out between October and December 2007 according to the WHO MONICA protocol. The assessment of DS was based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, cut-off =10 points). A DSM-IV- criteria based summary score of melancholic items in the BDI was used in dividing the participants with DS (N?=?429) into melancholic (N?=?138) and non-melancholic DS (N?=?291) subgroups. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, t-test, permutation test, analysis of covariance, multivariate logistic regression analysis and multinomial regression model.
The mean vitamin B12 level was 331±176 pmol/L in those without DS while the subjects with non-melancholic DS had a mean vitamin B12 level of 324 ± 135 pmol/L, and those with melancholic DS had the lowest mean vitamin B12 level of 292±112 pmol/L (p?
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 May;57(5):871-619484842
Unhealthy diet has been associated with obesity. Evening type has been associated with unhealthier food and nutrient intake that could predict a higher risk of obesity among them as compared to morning type. However, thus far no study has examined the interrelationships between chronotype, a healthy diet and obesity. We examined whether a healthy diet mediates the association between chronotype and obesity and whether chronotype modifies the association between a healthy and obesity. The National FINRISK 2007 Study included 4421 subjects aged 25-74 years. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Baltic Sea diet score (BSDS), including nine dietary components, was used as a measure of adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. Weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index values were calculated. Chronotype was assessed using a shortened version of Horne and Östberg's morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ). The sum score calculated from MEQ was either used as a continuous variable or divided into tertiles of which the lowest tertile demonstrated evening preference and the highest tertile demonstrated morning preference. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine whether the BSDS mediates the association between chronotype and obesity. Likelihood ratio test was used to determine whether chronotype modifies the association between the BSDS and the obesity measures. After testing the interaction, chronotype-stratified analysis for the association between the BSDS and obesity measures was determined by linear regression. Generally, the evening types had lower adherence to the BSDS and were more often smokers (men), physically inactive and had lower perceived health than the other chronotypes (p 0.05). No evidence that chronotype would modify the association between the BSDS and obesity was found either (p > 0.05).
Apart from the effects of vitamin D on bone metabolism, it is also known for its immunomodulatory properties. However, so far, it is not clear whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] exerts any beneficial effect on the periodontium. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the serum level of 25(OH)D is related to periodontal condition, measured by means of pocketing and gingival bleeding.
This cross-sectional study is based on a non-smoking subpopulation without diabetes of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (N = 1,262). Periodontal condition was measured as the number of teeth with deep (=4 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of bleeding sextants per individual. Serum 25(OH)D level was determined by means of a standard laboratory measurement. Prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models.
There were practically no associations between serum 25(OH)D level and teeth with deep (=4 mm) periodontal pockets or bleeding sextants. A somewhat lower proportion of teeth with deep periodontal pockets was found in higher serum 25(OH)D quintiles among individuals with a good oral hygiene level.
Serum 25(OH)D did not seem to be related to periodontal condition, measured as periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding in this low-risk, low-25(OH)D status population.
Chronotype is an emerging predictor of health and longevity, and understanding its influence on chronic diseases is important for constructing conceptual models of long-term pathways to health. We assessed the associations of chronotype with health status in the general Finnish adult population. Our population-based data were derived from the National FINRISK 2012 study and consisted of 4414 participants, aged 25-74 years, living in Finland. As part of their health examination, participants were asked about their circadian preference to the daily activities (morningness-eveningness) and a diagnosis or treatment for a set of common noncommunicable medical conditions and chronic diseases during the past 12 months. We found that there were 1935 (43.8%) morning types (MTs) and 595 (13.5%) evening types (ETs) and that 1884 (42.7%) were intermediates. As compared with the MTs, the ETs had significantly greater odds for depression (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.52-3.90, p
Inflammation is an important contributor to the development of chronic diseases. We examined whether a healthy Nordic diet, also called the Baltic Sea diet, associates with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers.
We used two independent cross-sectional studies: the DILGOM study including Finnish participants aged 25-74 years (n = 4579), and the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including individuals born at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1934 and 1944 and who participated in a clinical examination in 2001-2004 (n = 1911). Both studies measured anthropometrics, drew blood, and assessed concentrations of leptin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor a, interleukin 6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake over the past year and calculate the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS).
In both studies, linear regression adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, lifestyle factors, obesity, statin medication, and upstream inflammatory markers revealed an inverse association between the BSDS and hs-CRP concentrations (P
The health-related effects of the Nordic diet remain mostly unidentified. We created a Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) for epidemiological research to indicate adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. We examined associations between the score and nutrient intakes that are considered important in promoting public health. We also examined the performance of the BSDS under two different cut-off strategies.
The cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated using in-house software. Nine components were selected for the score. Each component was scored according to both sex-specific consumption quartiles (BSDS-Q) and medians (BSDS-M), and summed to give the final score values.
A large representative sample of the Finnish population.
Men (n 2217) and women (n 2493) aged 25 to 74 years.
In the age- and energy-adjusted model, adherence to the diet was associated with a higher intake of carbohydrates (E%), and lower intakes of SFA (E%) and alcohol (E%, where E% is percentage of total energy intake; P