BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
The investigation covered 250 professional musicians employed in 3 leading national orchestras in Stockholm, Sweden. The aims were to describe dental care habits, such as frequency of dental visits and frequency and methods of oral hygiene, and to relate these habits to oral cleanliness and gingival health in wind and non-wind instrument musicians. The results showed that 81.2% visited their dentist at least once a year and that 82.8% had had such a regular habit for the past 5 years or more. All subjects claimed to brush their teeth daily, and 66.0% used supplementary oral hygiene aids. The clinical examination showed that oral cleanliness and gingival health were of good standard. Mean plaque index was 0.9 and mean gingival index 1.2. Both measures increased with age and were closely correlated (r = 0.80). The relationships between the dental care habits studied and the clinical conditions with regard to oral cleanliness or gingival health were rather weak, although trends towards better gingival condition and oral cleanliness were observed with increasing frequency of toothbrushing. The results indicate a high degree of dental conscientiousness in professional musicians. No differences were observed between wind and non-wind instrument musicians.
A study has been performed covering the oral health of 247 professional musicians in Stockholm aged 21-60 yr. In an earlier study the oral hygiene was found to be of a high standard. The following part of this study concerned dental health i.e. remaining and intact teeth, decayed and filled proximal surfaces. All registrations were made on intraoral full mouth surveys. The number of remaining teeth was large, but decreased with age. In the 51-60 age group, 24.1 teeth remained on average. The number of teeth intact ranged from 55-28% of remaining teeth in the youngest and oldest age group respectively. A total of 555 caries lesions were registered on proximal surfaces, 49.1% being primary lesions in the enamel, 21.4% primary lesions into the dentin and 29.5% secondary lesions. Only 3.3% of all filled surfaces showed secondary lesions. The number of secondary lesions increased with age. A total of 30.9% of the subjects showed no proximal lesions. It was concluded that in adults who have adopted proper oral hygiene it is possible to preserve a large number of teeth and to limit the deterioration caused by caries.
The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was investigated using the occurrence of diseased pocket sites as the diagnostic criterion. The study group comprised 250 dentally aware subjects aged 21-60 years, with a high number of teeth remaining in all age groups. The % of sites with a probing depth of greater than or equal to 4 mm was 16% for the total sample. Most diseased sites (69%) were in the 4-mm class, with only 4% at depths greater than or equal to 7 mm. 82% on the subjects had 1 or more sites greater than or equal to 4 mm. With probing depth as the sole criterion for diagnosis of chronic periodontal disease, prevalence in a sample is heavily dependent on the critical levels selected for probing depth and cut-off point. With critical levels of 4 mm for probing depth and 1 diseased site for the cutoff point, prevalence was 49% in the 21-30 year age group and 95% in the 51-60 year age group. A shift in cutoff point to 40 diseased sites gave a prevalence of 2% and 41%, respectively, in the 2 age groups. For a critical depth of 7 mm and a cutoff point of 1 diseased site, the prevalence was 2% and 43% for the 2 age groups, respectively. Aspects of importance for the decision-making process on disease are discussed.
Nearly all Swedish private dentists are affiliated with the Dental Care Insurance. Proposed treatment plans, including radiographs, are submitted to the Social Insurance Office for prior approval. In this study the quality of a sample of intraoral radiographs submitted by 404 private dental practitioners was analysed. Forty-four per cent of 3,708 periapical radiographs, simultaneously evaluated by two examiners, were satisfactory. The most frequent errors were excessive vertical angulation (18 per cent), missing apex (12 per cent), film positioning error (11 per cent) and underexposure (10 per cent). Fifty-five per cent of 294 bitewing radiographs were satisfactory; the major error was missing bone margin (33 per cent). The radiographs of 15 per cent of the 2,844 teeth proposed for therapy had insufficient radiographic documentation, six per cent because of missing radiograph and nine per cent because of missing apex on the radiograph. These errors applied to every second dentist. Compared to a similar study ten years ago, the present results do not indicate that the quality of intraoral radiographs has improved.