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Abstinence in late adolescence--antecedents to and covariates of a sober lifestyle and its consequences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11379
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1995 Jul;41(1):113-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1995
Author
H. Leifman
E. Kühlhorn
P. Allebeck
S. Andréasson
A. Romelsjö
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1995 Jul;41(1):113-21
Date
Jul-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychology
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Case-Control Studies
Fathers
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Mental health
Peer Group
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Behavior
Sweden
Temperance - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was first to compare 18-19-year-old male abstainers with alcohol consumers, and especially light consumers, regarding degree of sociability as indicated by their (in)security in the company of others, their number of close friends, intimate conversations with friends and their popularity in school. Secondly, we analysed the importance of antecedents to and covariates of abstinence. In addition, the significant antecedents and covariates gave us information as to abstinence patterns. The study was based on a survey of all Swedish males, 18-19 years old, conscripted for military service in 1969-70. Data had been collected by means of questionnaires and psychological interviews, giving measures of each respondent's social background, psychiatric/psychological and psychosomatic health status, substance use, deviant behaviour and degree of sociability. Poor sociability was more common among the abstainers than among all the other categories of drinkers, including the light consumers. The conscripts' social background, and especially their fathers' drinking habits, had the strongest effects in explaining abstinence. Sixty-two per cent of all abstainers had non-drinking fathers, compared to 28% of the light consumers. As to the majority of abstainers, this indicates a link between the social background of temperance and their own reported abstinence. Their poor sociability could be a consequence of abstaining at a young age when abstinence is uncommon. Those who abstained despite a drinking father showed a worsening psychological status, suggesting a link between psychologically impaired health, poor sociability and abstinence. Though the abstainers were the least sociable, the difference between the abstainers, the light consumers and the moderate consumers in other categories were generally small.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7667664 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and mortality among young men: longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12477
Source
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988 Apr 9;296(6628):1021-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-9-1988
Author
S. Andreasson
P. Allebeck
A. Romelsjö
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988 Apr 9;296(6628):1021-5
Date
Apr-9-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholic Intoxication
Cause of Death
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Military Personnel
Mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Suicide
Sweden
Abstract
The association between alcohol consumption and 15 year mortality was studied in a cohort of 49,464 Swedish conscripts, mostly aged 18-19. A strong association was found. The relative risk of death among conscripts with a high consumption of alcohol (greater than 250 g/week) was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (2.3 to 4.1) compared with those with moderate consumption (1-100 g/week). After adjustment for social background variables the relative risk was reduced to 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.2). Among causes of death a strong predominance was found for violent death, suicide or probable suicide being the leading single cause and accounting for 236 (36%) of all deaths. The reported U shaped curve for total mortality was not confirmed, though when violent deaths were excluded a U shaped curve was suggested for other causes of death. These findings provide important epidemiological data on the drinking habits of young people and the consequences for mortality.
PubMed ID
3130122 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and psychiatric illness: longitudinal study of psychiatric admissions in a cohort of Swedish conscripts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12027
Source
Int J Addict. 1991 Jun;26(6):713-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1991
Author
S. Andréasson
P. Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
Int J Addict. 1991 Jun;26(6):713-28
Date
Jun-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Cohort Studies
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Military Personnel - psychology
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The association between level of alcohol consumption and admission for psychiatric care during a 15-year follow-up was studied in a cohort of 49,464 Swedish conscripts. The relative risk for psychiatric admission among high consumers of alcohol (more than 250 g alcohol per week) was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 4.7-6.0) compared with moderate consumers (1-100 g alcohol per week). After control for social background variables in a multivariate model, the odds ratio was 1.8 (1.5-2.1). Abstainers had the same rate of admission as moderate consumers. The association with alcohol was positive in all diagnostic categories studied. Neurotic depression was found to be a risk factor for admission for alcoholism, indicating that a causal association between alcohol and neurotic depression may go in both directions.
PubMed ID
1757174 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and stroke mortality. 20-year follow-up of 15,077 men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11349
Source
Stroke. 1995 Oct;26(10):1768-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1995
Author
H. Hansagi
A. Romelsjö
M. Gerhardsson de Verdier
S. Andréasson
A. Leifman
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institute, Psychiatric Clinic for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Stroke. 1995 Oct;26(10):1768-73
Date
Oct-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholic Intoxication - epidemiology
Brain Ischemia - mortality
Cerebral Hemorrhage - mortality
Cerebrovascular Disorders - mortality
Cohort Studies
Ethanol - administration & dosage - poisoning
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperance
Twin Studies
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since stroke is a principal cause of death in elderly people, we analyzed the association between alcohol and stroke mortality in a cohort of 15,077 middle-aged and older men and women. METHODS: Data on alcohol habits were obtained from a questionnaire in 1967. The subsequent 20 years yielded 769 deaths from stroke, of which 574 were ischemic. Relative mortality risks (RR) were estimated from logistic regression analyses with lifelong alcohol abstainers as a reference group. Adjustments were made for age and smoking. RESULTS: No association was found between alcohol intake and hemorrhagic stroke. An elevated risk of ischemic stroke was found for men who drank infrequently, that is, a few times a year or less often (RR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 3.2), for those who were intoxicated now and then (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8), and for those who reported "binge" drinking a few times in the year or less often (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5). Among women only ex-drinkers had an elevated risk of dying of ischemic stroke (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 7.2). The risk was reduced for women who had an estimated average consumption of 0 to 5 g pure alcohol per day (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.8); for those who did not drink every day (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9); and for those who never "went on a binge" (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.8) or became intoxicated (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Drinking habits were associated only with deaths from ischemic stroke, and the risk patterns were different for men and women. In analyses, ex-drinkers should not be included with lifelong abstainers, since the former tend to run high health risk.
PubMed ID
7570723 View in PubMed
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Alcohol, mortality and cardiovascular events in a 35 year follow-up of a nationwide representative cohort of 50,000 Swedish conscripts up to age 55.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126462
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 May-Jun;47(3):322-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Romelsjö
P. Allebeck
S. Andréasson
A. Leifman
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. anders.romelsjo@ki.se
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 May-Jun;47(3):322-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - mortality
Alcohol-Related Disorders - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - mortality
Stroke - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To assess the association between drinking patterns and mortality, and cardiovascular disease in a large cohort of young- and middle-aged men and to assess whether the net balance of harm and protective effect implies protective effect or not.
Information from health examinations, psychological assessments and alcohol use background in a nationally representative birth cohort of 49,411 male military conscripts aged 18-20 years in 1969/1970, were linked to mortality and hospitalization data through 2004. Cox regression analyses were conducted and attributable proportions (APs) calculated. Confounders (baseline social status, intelligence, personality and smoking) were taken into account.
Increasing alcohol use was associated with increasing mortality (2614 deceased) and with decreasing risk for myocardial infarction (MI). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.82] with a consumption corresponding to 30 g 100% ethanol/day or more in multivariate analysis. The risk for non-fatal MI was significantly reduced at 60 g 100% ethanol/day (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.90), not reduced for fatal MI, and non-significantly reduced for total MI. There was a marked association between alcohol use at conscription and mortality and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis. APs indicate that alcohol caused 420 deaths, 61 cases of non-fatal stroke and protected from 154 cases on non-fatal MI.
Many more deaths were caused by alcohol than cases of non-fatal MI prevented. From a strict health perspective, we find no support for alcohol use in men below 55 years.
Notes
Comment In: Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 May-Jun;47(3):20322398024
PubMed ID
22387338 View in PubMed
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Alcohol, social factors and mortality among young men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12014
Source
Br J Addict. 1991 Jul;86(7):877-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1991
Author
S. Andréasson
A. Romelsjö
P. Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
Br J Addict. 1991 Jul;86(7):877-87
Date
Jul-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholism - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In a 20-year follow-up the association between alcohol consumption, social and personal background factors and mortality was studied in a cohort of 49,464 Swedish conscripts. The relative risk of death among high consumers (those consuming more than 250 g alcohol/week at conscription) was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 2.2-3.7) compared with moderate consumers (1-100 g/week). Deaths caused by direct toxic effects of alcohol were few, less than 5%. Instead suicides and accidents predominated. Abstainers had a slightly lower mortality than moderate consumers, with a relative risk of 0.8 (0.6-1.1), due to a significantly lower risk for traffic deaths. High consumers of alcohol had more than twice as many social and personal risk factors for premature death compared with the cohort as a whole. Yet presence of social risk factors added little to the already increased relative risk of death among high consumers.
PubMed ID
1912740 View in PubMed
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Antecedents and covariates of high alcohol consumption in young men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11842
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992 Aug;16(4):708-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1992
Author
S. Andréasson
P. Allebeck
L. Brandt
A. Romelsjö
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992 Aug;16(4):708-13
Date
Aug-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Military Personnel - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Personality Development
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Social Environment
Socialization
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The role of social, behavioral, and psychological characteristics and other risk indicators for high alcohol consumption in young men was analyzed using a survey of 49,464 Swedish conscripts. A strong association between an increasing weight of adverse social and behavioral risk indicators on the one hand and high alcohol consumption on the other was found. Yet many high consumers had no or few risk indicators. In multivariate analysis, substance use and indicators of deviant behavior came out as the strongest risk indicators for high alcohol consumption. Indicators of poor social background generally had relatively low odds ratios. Poor home wellbeing, for instance, had an odds ratio of 0.9. Social group of father was nonsignificant. Very good family economy had a higher odds ratio, 1.7, than average or poor family economy. Psychosomatic symptoms had relatively low odds ratios. Among psychological variables, low emotional control had a significantly elevated odds ratio of 1.8. Increased odds ratios were found for conscripts who were never anxious or never felt insecure. In conclusion, although many high consumers of alcohol had no or few risk indicators, we identified a high-risk group characterized by high levels of alcohol consumption and several indicators of personality disturbances, early deviant behavior, and social maladjustment.
PubMed ID
1530134 View in PubMed
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Cannabis and mortality among young men: a longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68612
Source
Scand J Soc Med. 1990;18(1):9-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
S. Andréasson
P. Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Soc Med. 1990;18(1):9-15
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Causality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Marijuana Abuse - etiology - mortality - psychology
Military Personnel
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The association between level of cannabis consumption and mortality during a 15-year follow-up was studied in a cohort of 45,540 Swedish conscripts. The relative risk of death among high consumers of cannabis (use on more than 50 occasions) was 2.8 (95% confidence interval (1.9-4.1)) compared with non-users. However, after control for social background variables in a multivariate model, no excess mortality was found. A high level of consumption of other drugs was also associated with increased mortality; the relative risk of high consumption (greater than 50 times) was 4.6 (2.4-8.5) compared with non-users. After adjustment for social background a relative risk of 1.2 (0.8-1.9) remained; for those having used drugs intravenously more than once, the relative risk was 1.6 (0.9-2.7). Among causes of death a strong predominance was found for violent death, suicide or uncertain suicide being the single most important accounting for 34.4% of all deaths. The proportion of suicides increased sharply with the level of cannabis consumption.
Notes
Erratum In: Scand J Soc Med 1990 Jun;18(2):following 158
PubMed ID
2320981 View in PubMed
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Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234308
Source
Lancet. 1987 Dec 26;2(8574):1483-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-26-1987
Author
S. Andréasson
P. Allebeck
A. Engström
U. Rydberg
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Social Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
Lancet. 1987 Dec 26;2(8574):1483-6
Date
Dec-26-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Marijuana Abuse - complications
Military Personnel
Probability
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - chemically induced
Sweden
Abstract
The association between level of cannabis consumption and development of schizophrenia during a 15-year follow-up was studied in a cohort of 45,570 Swedish conscripts. The relative risk for schizophrenia among high consumers of cannabis (use on more than fifty occasions) was 6.0 (95% confidence interval 4.0-8.9) compared with non-users. Persistence of the association after allowance for other psychiatric illness and social background indicated that cannabis is an independent risk factor for schizophrenia.
PubMed ID
2892048 View in PubMed
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Cannabis, schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: 35 years of follow-up of a population-based cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130461
Source
Psychol Med. 2012 Jun;42(6):1321-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
E. Manrique-Garcia
S. Zammit
C. Dalman
T. Hemmingsson
S. Andreasson
P. Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Psychol Med. 2012 Jun;42(6):1321-8
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cannabis - adverse effects
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
There is now strong evidence that cannabis use increases the risk of psychoses including schizophrenia, but the relationship between cannabis and different psychotic disorders, as well as the mechanisms, are poorly known. We aimed to assess types of psychotic outcomes after use of cannabis in adolescence and variation in risk over time.
A cohort of 50 087 military conscripts with data on cannabis use in late adolescence was followed up during 35 years with regard to in-patient care for psychotic diagnoses.
Odds ratios for psychotic outcomes among frequent cannabis users compared with non-users were 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-5.8] for schizophrenia, 2.2 (95% CI 1.0-4.7) for brief psychosis and 2.0 (95% CI 0.8-4.7) for other non-affective psychoses. Risk of schizophrenia declined over the decades in moderate users but much less so in frequent users. The presence of a brief psychosis did not increase risk of later schizophrenia more in cannabis users compared with non-users.
Our results confirm an increased risk of schizophrenia in a long-term perspective, although the risk declined over time in moderate users.
PubMed ID
21999906 View in PubMed
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33 records – page 1 of 4.