This study is devoted to the practice of the application of the current legislative regulatory and procedural base for the occupational health and safety issues. The issues of the occupational risks assessment at the enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region are discussed Approaches to the creation of the occupational risk management and assessment systems are proposed.
The paper summarizes the results of implementation of the sociohygienic monitoring system in the Sverdlovsk Region, the stages of the populational and individual diagnosis, by using a risk-assessing methodology and current environmental and epidemiological studies. Sociohygienic monitoring allowed the priorities to be determined in health maintenance and promotion in the population of this region. The accumulated experience illustrated by some examples that have been earlier published in detail supports the need for a relationship of the above guidelines within the sociohygienic monitoring system, for the development of mechanisms responsible for risk management and further improvement of surveillance of the sanitary and epidemiological situation.
With the help of mathematical methods of pattern recognition the analysis of complex cancer risk factors was conducted aiming at estimation the role of chronic radiation exposure in development of lung and breast cancer in dwellers of an industrial city exposed to irregular radioactive contamination as a result of an accident at PO "Mayak". It was shown, that chronic radiation exposure is an important factor, influenced the development of malignant neoplasms in city population.
The authors summarize theoretical principles of increasing human resistence to toxic effects of inorganic compounds polluting occupational environment and habitat, exemplify practical use of this prophylactic trend.
The authors determined prospective directions in researchon asbestos problem--risk evaluation, early diagnosis and physiotherapy of asbestos-related diseases; sanitary and epidemiologic well-being of population influenced by enterprises extracting and concentration of asbestos; evaluation of new production and development of legal regulation of safety for work with natural and artificial mineral fibers.
Dioxins and dioxin-like substances are highly toxic and extremely dangerous chemical compounds. Dioxins are formed during the thermal process associated with the use of chlorine. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-1,4-dioxin is the most toxic, the most typical and well-studied agent. The most characteristic and constant indicators of intoxication with dioxin-containing substances are altered body weight, chloracne, hepatic damage, thyroid involution, structural changes in the adrenal cortex, spleen, genitals, immunodeficiency. There is evidence for a role of these agents in the development of infertility and neonatal pathology.
Surveys made in the Sverdlovsk Region suggest that a procedure for evaluating a risk in combination with ecological and epidemiological surveys greatly enhances the potentialities of predicting and detecting human environment-related diseases and both approaches deserve a wide introduction into the socio-sanitary monitoring system.
In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis.