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11 records – page 1 of 2.

Book review: the changing Arctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267695
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Nov 6;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-6-2015
Author
Roland Kallenborn
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Nov 6;
Date
Nov-6-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
PubMed ID
26541147 View in PubMed
Less detail

Elucidation of contamination sources for poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291824
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 May 12; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-12-2018
Author
Jøran Solnes Skaar
Erik Magnus Ræder
Jan Ludvig Lyche
Lutz Ahrens
Roland Kallenborn
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), 2027, Kjeller, Norway.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 May 12; :
Date
May-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs. For background site (Linnévatnet area, sampling during April to June 2015), SPFAS levels ranged from 0.4 to 4 ng/L in surface lake water (n?=?20). PFAS in meltwater from the contributing glaciers showed similar concentrations (~?4 ng/L, n?=?2). The short-chain perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) was predominant in lake water (60-80% of the SPFASs), meltwater (20-30%) and run-off water (40%). Long-range transport is assumed to be the major PFAS source. In Longyearbyen, five water samples (i.e. 2 seawater, 3 run-off) were collected near the local firefighting training site (FFTS) in November 2014 and June 2015, respectively. The highest PFAS levels were found in FFTS meltwater run-off (118 ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound in the FFTS meltwater run-off (53-58% PFASs). At the research station Ny-Ålesund, seawater (n?=?6), soil (n?=?9) and freshwater (n?=?10) were collected in June 2016. Low SPFAS concentrations were determined for seawater (5-6 ng/L), whereas high SPFAS concentrations were found in run-off water (113-119 ng/L) and soil (211-800 ng/g dry weight (dw)) collected close to the local FFTS. In addition, high SPFAS levels (127 ng/L) were also found in freshwater from lake Solvatnet close to former sewage treatment facility. Overall, at both FFTS-affected sites (soil, water), PFOS was the most abundant compound (60-69% of SPFASs). FFTS and landfill locations were identified as major PFAS sources for Svalbard settlements.
PubMed ID
29754295 View in PubMed
Less detail

Elucidation of contamination sources for poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300071
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Mar; 26(8):7356-7363
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Jøran Solnes Skaar
Erik Magnus Ræder
Jan Ludvig Lyche
Lutz Ahrens
Roland Kallenborn
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), 2027, Kjeller, Norway.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Mar; 26(8):7356-7363
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis
Arctic Regions
Environmental monitoring
Firefighters
Fires
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Freezing
Fresh Water - chemistry
Geological Phenomena
Ice Cover
Lakes - chemistry
Mining
Norway
Rivers - chemistry
Seawater - chemistry
Snow - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Svalbard
Waste Disposal Facilities
Waste Water
Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs. For background site (Linnévatnet area, sampling during April to June 2015), SPFAS levels ranged from 0.4 to 4 ng/L in surface lake water (n?=?20). PFAS in meltwater from the contributing glaciers showed similar concentrations (~?4 ng/L, n?=?2). The short-chain perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) was predominant in lake water (60-80% of the SPFASs), meltwater (20-30%) and run-off water (40%). Long-range transport is assumed to be the major PFAS source. In Longyearbyen, five water samples (i.e. 2 seawater, 3 run-off) were collected near the local firefighting training site (FFTS) in November 2014 and June 2015, respectively. The highest PFAS levels were found in FFTS meltwater run-off (118 ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound in the FFTS meltwater run-off (53-58% PFASs). At the research station Ny-Ålesund, seawater (n?=?6), soil (n?=?9) and freshwater (n?=?10) were collected in June 2016. Low SPFAS concentrations were determined for seawater (5-6 ng/L), whereas high SPFAS concentrations were found in run-off water (113-119 ng/L) and soil (211-800 ng/g dry weight (dw)) collected close to the local FFTS. In addition, high SPFAS levels (127 ng/L) were also found in freshwater from lake Solvatnet close to former sewage treatment facility. Overall, at both FFTS-affected sites (soil, water), PFOS was the most abundant compound (60-69% of SPFASs). FFTS and landfill locations were identified as major PFAS sources for Svalbard settlements.
PubMed ID
29754295 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Arctic environments: indicator contaminants for assessing local and remote anthropogenic sources in a pristine ecosystem in change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297653
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):33001-33013
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Roland Kallenborn
Eva Brorström-Lundén
Lars-Otto Reiersen
Simon Wilson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Sciences (KBM), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 1432, Ås, Norway. roland.kallenborn@nmbu.no.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):33001-33013
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biodegradation, Environmental
Cosmetics - analysis
Ecosystem
Ecotoxicology
Environment
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Food chain
Fresh Water - chemistry
Humans
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Seawater - chemistry
Sewage - chemistry
Waste Water
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
A first review on occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is presented. The literature survey conducted here was initiated by the current Assessment of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). This first review on the occurrence and environmental profile of PPCPs in the Arctic identified the presence of 110 related substances in the Arctic environment based on the reports from scientific publications, national and regional assessments and surveys, as well as academic research studies (i.e., PhD theses). PPCP residues were reported in virtually all environmental compartments from coastal seawater to high trophic level biota. For Arctic environments, domestic and municipal wastes as well as sewage are identified as primary release sources. However, the absence of modern waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), even in larger settlements in the Arctic, is resulting in relatively high release rates for selected PPCPs into the receiving Arctic (mainly) aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are designed with specific biochemical functions as a part of an integrated therapeutically procedure. This biochemical effect may cause unwanted environmental toxicological effects on non-target organisms when the compound is released into the environment. In the Arctic environments, pharmaceutical residues are released into low to very low ambient temperatures mainly into aqueous environments. Low biodegradability and, thus, prolonged residence time must be expected for the majority of the pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic system. The environmental toxicological consequence of the continuous PPCP release is, thus, expected to be different in the Arctic compared to the temperate regions of the globe. Exposure risks for Arctic human populations due to consumption of contaminated local fish and invertebrates or through exposure to resistant microbial communities cannot be excluded. However, the scientific results reported and summarized here, published in 23 relevant papers and reports (see Table S1 and following references), must still be considered as indication only. Comprehensive environmental studies on the fate, environmental toxicology, and distribution profiles of pharmaceuticals applied in high volumes and released into the Nordic environment under cold Northern climate conditions should be given high priority by national and international authorities.
PubMed ID
28762048 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Arctic environments: indicator contaminants for assessing local and remote anthropogenic sources in a pristine ecosystem in change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284700
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jul 31;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-31-2017
Author
Roland Kallenborn
Eva Brorström-Lundén
Lars-Otto Reiersen
Simon Wilson
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jul 31;
Date
Jul-31-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
A first review on occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is presented. The literature survey conducted here was initiated by the current Assessment of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). This first review on the occurrence and environmental profile of PPCPs in the Arctic identified the presence of 110 related substances in the Arctic environment based on the reports from scientific publications, national and regional assessments and surveys, as well as academic research studies (i.e., PhD theses). PPCP residues were reported in virtually all environmental compartments from coastal seawater to high trophic level biota. For Arctic environments, domestic and municipal wastes as well as sewage are identified as primary release sources. However, the absence of modern waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), even in larger settlements in the Arctic, is resulting in relatively high release rates for selected PPCPs into the receiving Arctic (mainly) aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are designed with specific biochemical functions as a part of an integrated therapeutically procedure. This biochemical effect may cause unwanted environmental toxicological effects on non-target organisms when the compound is released into the environment. In the Arctic environments, pharmaceutical residues are released into low to very low ambient temperatures mainly into aqueous environments. Low biodegradability and, thus, prolonged residence time must be expected for the majority of the pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic system. The environmental toxicological consequence of the continuous PPCP release is, thus, expected to be different in the Arctic compared to the temperate regions of the globe. Exposure risks for Arctic human populations due to consumption of contaminated local fish and invertebrates or through exposure to resistant microbial communities cannot be excluded. However, the scientific results reported and summarized here, published in 23 relevant papers and reports (see Table S1 and following references), must still be considered as indication only. Comprehensive environmental studies on the fate, environmental toxicology, and distribution profiles of pharmaceuticals applied in high volumes and released into the Nordic environment under cold Northern climate conditions should be given high priority by national and international authorities.
PubMed ID
28762048 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pine Needles for the Screening of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFASs) along Ski Tracks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283255
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Sep 06;50(17):9487-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-06-2016
Author
Mária Chropenová
Pavlína Karásková
Roland Kallenborn
Eva Klemmová Gregu┼íková
Pavel Cupr
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Sep 06;50(17):9487-96
Date
Sep-06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Norway
Pinus - chemistry
Slovakia
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A difference in product composition (particularly in ski waxes) and differences in Norwegian and Slovakian regulations are considered to be the primary reason for these differences. Open application of PFOA in industry and products has been banned in Norway since 2011. The replacement of PFOA with short-chain substitutes is thus considered the reason for the observed pattern differences in the analyzed pine needles. Regular monitoring and screening programs are recommended.
PubMed ID
27457263 View in PubMed
Less detail

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as sentinels for the elucidation of Arctic environmental change processes: a comprehensive review combined with ArcRisk project results.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292539
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Jun 28; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-28-2018
Author
Pernilla Carlsson
Knut Breivik
Eva Brorström-Lundén
Ian Cousins
Jesper Christensen
Joan O Grimalt
Crispin Halsall
Roland Kallenborn
Khaled Abass
Gerhard Lammel
John Munthe
Matthew MacLeod
Jon Øyvind Odland
Janet Pawlak
Arja Rautio
Lars-Otto Reiersen
Martin Schlabach
Irene Stemmler
Simon Wilson
Henry Wöhrnschimmel
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), 0349, Oslo, Norway. pernilla.carlsson@niva.no.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Jun 28; :
Date
Jun-28-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be used as chemical sentinels for the assessment of anthropogenic influences on Arctic environmental change. We present an overview of studies on PCBs in the Arctic and combine these with the findings from ArcRisk-a major European Union-funded project aimed at examining the effects of climate change on the transport of contaminants to and their behaviour of in the Arctic-to provide a case study on the behaviour and impact of PCBs over time in the Arctic. PCBs in the Arctic have shown declining trends in the environment over the last few decades. Atmospheric long-range transport from secondary and primary sources is the major input of PCBs to the Arctic region. Modelling of the atmospheric PCB composition and behaviour showed some increases in environmental concentrations in a warmer Arctic, but the general decline in PCB levels is still the most prominent feature. 'Within-Arctic' processing of PCBs will be affected by climate change-related processes such as changing wet deposition. These in turn will influence biological exposure and uptake of PCBs. The pan-Arctic rivers draining large Arctic/sub-Arctic catchments provide a significant source of PCBs to the Arctic Ocean, although changes in hydrology/sediment transport combined with a changing marine environment remain areas of uncertainty with regard to PCB fate. Indirect effects of climate change on human exposure, such as a changing diet will influence and possibly reduce PCB exposure for indigenous peoples. Body burdens of PCBs have declined since the 1980s and are predicted to decline further.
PubMed ID
29956262 View in PubMed
Less detail

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as sentinels for the elucidation of Arctic environmental change processes: a comprehensive review combined with ArcRisk project results.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299344
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Aug; 25(23):22499-22528
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Aug-2018
Author
Pernilla Carlsson
Knut Breivik
Eva Brorström-Lundén
Ian Cousins
Jesper Christensen
Joan O Grimalt
Crispin Halsall
Roland Kallenborn
Khaled Abass
Gerhard Lammel
John Munthe
Matthew MacLeod
Jon Øyvind Odland
Janet Pawlak
Arja Rautio
Lars-Otto Reiersen
Martin Schlabach
Irene Stemmler
Simon Wilson
Henry Wöhrnschimmel
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), 0349, Oslo, Norway. pernilla.carlsson@niva.no.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Aug; 25(23):22499-22528
Date
Aug-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Ice
Models, Theoretical
Oceans and Seas
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Rivers - chemistry
Seasons
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be used as chemical sentinels for the assessment of anthropogenic influences on Arctic environmental change. We present an overview of studies on PCBs in the Arctic and combine these with the findings from ArcRisk-a major European Union-funded project aimed at examining the effects of climate change on the transport of contaminants to and their behaviour of in the Arctic-to provide a case study on the behaviour and impact of PCBs over time in the Arctic. PCBs in the Arctic have shown declining trends in the environment over the last few decades. Atmospheric long-range transport from secondary and primary sources is the major input of PCBs to the Arctic region. Modelling of the atmospheric PCB composition and behaviour showed some increases in environmental concentrations in a warmer Arctic, but the general decline in PCB levels is still the most prominent feature. 'Within-Arctic' processing of PCBs will be affected by climate change-related processes such as changing wet deposition. These in turn will influence biological exposure and uptake of PCBs. The pan-Arctic rivers draining large Arctic/sub-Arctic catchments provide a significant source of PCBs to the Arctic Ocean, although changes in hydrology/sediment transport combined with a changing marine environment remain areas of uncertainty with regard to PCB fate. Indirect effects of climate change on human exposure, such as a changing diet will influence and possibly reduce PCB exposure for indigenous peoples. Body burdens of PCBs have declined since the 1980s and are predicted to decline further.
PubMed ID
29956262 View in PubMed
Less detail

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105560
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Mar;21(6):4741-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Pernilla Carlsson
Dorte Herzke
Roland Kallenborn
Author Affiliation
University Centre in Svalbard, P.O. Box 156, 9171, Longyearbyen, Norway.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Mar;21(6):4741-50
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis
Animals
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Greenland
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Humans
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Seafood - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from
PubMed ID
24352552 View in PubMed
Less detail

Spatial and temporal distribution of chiral pesticides in Calanus spp. from three Arctic fjords.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257355
Source
Environ Pollut. 2014 Sep;192:154-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Pernilla Carlsson
Nicholas A Warner
Ingeborg G Hallanger
Dorte Herzke
Roland Kallenborn
Author Affiliation
University Centre in Svalbard, P.O. Box 156, NO-9171 Longyearbyen, Norway; University of Tromsø, Hansine Hansens veg 14, NO-9007 Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2014 Sep;192:154-61
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis
Copepoda - chemistry - metabolism
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Estuaries
Pesticides - analysis
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Svalbard
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Zooplankton - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
Concentration and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of chiral chlorinated pesticides (a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH), trans-, cis- and oxychlordane) were determined in Arctic zooplankton, mainly Calanus spp. collected in the period 2007-11 from Svalbard fjords and open pack-ice. The temporal and spatial enantiomer distribution varied considerably for all species and chiral pesticides investigated. An overall enantiomeric excess of (+)-oxychlordane (EF 0.53-0.86) were observed. Cis-chlordane was close to racemic (EF 0.46-0.55), while EF for trans-chlordane varied between 0.29 and 0.55, and between 0.38 and 0.59 for a-HCH. The biodegradation potential for trans-chlordane was higher compared to cis-chlordane. The comprehensive statistical evaluation of the data set revealed that the EF distribution of a-HCH was affected by ice cover to a higher extent compared to cis-chlordane. Potential impact from benthic processes on EFs in zooplankton is an interesting feature and should be further investigated. Enantiomeric selective analyses may be a suitable tool for investigations of climate change related influences on Arctic ecosystems.
PubMed ID
24951967 View in PubMed
Less detail

11 records – page 1 of 2.