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Challenges to adaptation in northernmost Europe as a result of global climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143358
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):81-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Christer Nilsson
Roland Jansson
E Carina H Keskitalo
Tatiana Vlassova
Marja-Liisa Sutinen
Jon Moen
F Stuart Chapin
Author Affiliation
Landscape Ecology Group, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. christer.nilsson@emg.umu.se
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):81-4
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Commerce
Conservation of Natural Resources
Europe
Finland
Geography
Humans
Norway
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
World Health
Notes
Cites: Ambio. 2006 Jun;35(4):198-20216944645
Cites: Ambio. 2006 Jun;35(4):176-8116944642
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1134:201-1218566095
Cites: Sci Am. 2007 Jun;296(6):4317663223
PubMed ID
20496656 View in PubMed
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Hydropeaking affects germination and establishment of riverbank vegetation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307200
Source
Ecol Appl. 2020 06; 30(4):e02076
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2020
Author
María D Bejarano
Álvaro Sordo-Ward
Carlos Alonso
Roland Jansson
Christer Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Systems and Resources, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, 28040, Spain.
Source
Ecol Appl. 2020 06; 30(4):e02076
Date
06-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Ecosystem
Floods
Power Plants
Rivers
Sweden
Abstract
Hydropeaking, defined as frequent and rapid variation in flow in regulated rivers with hydropower plants over a short period of time, usually sub-daily to weekly, alters hydraulic parameters such as water levels or flow velocity and exerts strong impacts on fluvial ecosystems. We evaluated the effects of hydropeaking on riverbank vegetation, specifically assessing the germination and establishment of seedlings and cuttings of plant species representing a variation in traits. We used seeds and seedlings and cuttings varying in size as phytometers, and transplanted them to riverbanks both above and below dams used for hydropower production in northern Sweden, selected to represent a gradient in hydropeaking intensity, and along a free-flowing reach. We also analyzed sub-daily water-level variables modified by hydropeaking to identify variables key in explaining the observed vegetation patterns. We found that plant responses to hydropeaking varied with species, with flood-intolerant species being the most strongly affected, as early as the germination stage. In contrast, seeds of flood-tolerant species managed to germinate and survive the early establishment phase, although strong erosive processes triggered by hydropeaking eventually caused most of them to fail. The fate of flood-intolerant species identifies germination as the most critical life-history stage. The depth and frequency of the inundation were the leading variables explaining plant responses, while the duration of shallow inundation explained little of the variation. The rise and fall rates of water levels were key in explaining variation in germination success. Based on the results, we propose restoration measures to enhance establishment of riparian plant communities while minimizing the impact on hydropower electricity production. Given the strong decrease in the germination of species intolerant to prolonged flooding with hydropeaking, planting of seedlings, preferably of large sizes, together with restrictions in the operation of the power plant during the establishment phase to enhance survival would be the best restoration option. Given the high probability of plant uprooting with hydropeaking, bank protection measures have the potential to increase riparian plant survival of all species, including flooding-tolerant species.
PubMed ID
31971649 View in PubMed
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Paleodistribution modeling suggests glacial refugia in Scandinavia and out-of-Tibet range expansion of the Arctic fox.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269494
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Jan;6(1):170-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Marcelo Fuentes-Hurtado
Anouschka R Hof
Roland Jansson
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Jan;6(1):170-80
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Quaternary glacial cycles have shaped the geographic distributions and evolution of numerous species in the Arctic. Ancient DNA suggests that the Arctic fox went extinct in Europe at the end of the Pleistocene and that Scandinavia was subsequently recolonized from Siberia, indicating inability to track its habitat through space as climate changed. Using ecological niche modeling, we found that climatically suitable conditions for Arctic fox were found in Scandinavia both during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. Our results are supported by fossil occurrences from the last glacial. Furthermore, the model projection for the LGM, validated with fossil records, suggested an approximate distance of 2000 km between suitable Arctic conditions and the Tibetan Plateau well within the dispersal distance of the species, supporting the recently proposed hypothesis of range expansion from an origin on the Tibetan Plateau to the rest of Eurasia. The fact that the Arctic fox disappeared from Scandinavia despite suitable conditions suggests that extant populations may be more sensitive to climate change than previously thought.
PubMed ID
26811782 View in PubMed
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Smaller future floods imply less habitat for riparian plants along a boreal river.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309350
Source
Ecol Appl. 2019 12; 29(8):e01977
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2019
Author
Roland Jansson
Lotta Ström
Christer Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, SE-901 87, Sweden.
Source
Ecol Appl. 2019 12; 29(8):e01977
Date
12-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Ecosystem
Europe
Floods
Rivers
Sweden
Abstract
Climate-change projections suggest large changes in riverine flow regime, which will likely alter riparian communities. In northern Europe, forecasts propose lower annual spring flood peaks and higher winter flows, resulting in narrower riparian zones. To estimate the impact of climate change on habitat extent of riparian plants, we developed a framework estimating the sensitivity and exposure of individual species to streamflow change, and surveyed five reaches along the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden. We modeled the hydrologic niche of riparian plant species based on the probability of occurrence along gradients of flood frequency and duration and used predicted future water-level fluctuations (based on climate models and IPCC emission scenarios) to calculate changes in flow-related habitat availability of individual species. Despite projected increases in runoff, we predict most species to decrease in riparian elevational extent by on average 12-29% until the end of the century, depending on scenario. Species growing in the upper, spring-flood-controlled part of the riparian zone will likely lose most habitat, with the largest reductions in species with narrow ranges of inundation duration tolerance (decreases of up to 54%). In contrast, the elevational extent of most amphibious species is predicted to increase, but conditions creating isoëtid vegetation will become rarer or disappear: isoëtid vegetation is presently found in areas where ice formed in the fall settles on the riverbank during the winter as water levels subside. Higher winter flows will make these conditions rare. We argue that our framework is useful to project the effects of hydrologic change caused by climate change as well as other stressors such as flow regulation also in other regions. With few rivers remaining unaffected by dams and other human stressors, these results call for monitoring to detect species declines. Management to alleviate species losses might include mitigation of habitat degradation from land-use activities, more environmentally friendly flow schemes, and more intensive management options such as mowing riparian meadows no longer regularly maintained by recurrent floods.
PubMed ID
31323161 View in PubMed
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Vulnerability of Subarctic and Arctic breeding birds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278879
Source
Ecol Appl. 2017 Jan;27(1):219-234
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Anouschka R Hof
Genoveva Rodríguez-Castañeda
Andrew M Allen
Roland Jansson
Christer Nilsson
Source
Ecol Appl. 2017 Jan;27(1):219-234
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Recent research predicts that future climate change will result in substantial biodiversity loss associated with loss of habitat for species. However, the magnitude of the anticipated biodiversity impacts are less well known. Studies of species vulnerability to climate change through species distribution models are often limited to assessing the extent of species' exposure to the consequences of climate change to their local environment, neglecting species sensitivity to global change. The likelihood that species or populations will decline or go extinct due to climate change also depends on the general sensitivity and adaptive capacity of species. Hence, analyses should also obtain more accurate assessments of their vulnerability. We addressed this by constructing a vulnerability matrix for 180 bird species currently breeding in Subarctic and Arctic Europe that integrates a climatic exposure-based vulnerability index and a natural-history trait-based vulnerability index. Species that may need extra conservation attention based on our matrix include the Great Snipe (Gallinago media), the Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), the Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus), the Common Swift (Apus apus), the Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and the Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica). Our vulnerability matrix stresses the importance of looking beyond exposure to climate change when species conservation is the aim. For the species that scored high in our matrix the future in the region looks grim and targeted conservation actions, incorporating macroecological and global perspectives, may be needed to alleviate severe population declines. We further demonstrate that climate change is predicted to significantly reduce the current breeding range of species adapted to cold climates in Subarctic and Arctic Europe. The number of incubation days and whether the species was a habitat specialist or not were also among the variables most strongly related to predicted contraction or expansion of species' breeding ranges. This approach may aid the identification of vulnerable bird species worldwide.
PubMed ID
28052503 View in PubMed
Less detail

Vulnerability of Subarctic and Arctic breeding birds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301984
Source
Ecol Appl. 2017 01; 27(1):219-234
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2017
Author
Anouschka R Hof
Genoveva Rodríguez-Castañeda
Andrew M Allen
Roland Jansson
Christer Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Landscape Ecology Group, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, SE-901 87, Sweden.
Source
Ecol Appl. 2017 01; 27(1):219-234
Date
01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Birds - physiology
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Finland
Norway
Population Dynamics
Sweden
Abstract
Recent research predicts that future climate change will result in substantial biodiversity loss associated with loss of habitat for species. However, the magnitude of the anticipated biodiversity impacts are less well known. Studies of species vulnerability to climate change through species distribution models are often limited to assessing the extent of species' exposure to the consequences of climate change to their local environment, neglecting species sensitivity to global change. The likelihood that species or populations will decline or go extinct due to climate change also depends on the general sensitivity and adaptive capacity of species. Hence, analyses should also obtain more accurate assessments of their vulnerability. We addressed this by constructing a vulnerability matrix for 180 bird species currently breeding in Subarctic and Arctic Europe that integrates a climatic exposure-based vulnerability index and a natural-history trait-based vulnerability index. Species that may need extra conservation attention based on our matrix include the Great Snipe (Gallinago media), the Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), the Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus), the Common Swift (Apus apus), the Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and the Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica). Our vulnerability matrix stresses the importance of looking beyond exposure to climate change when species conservation is the aim. For the species that scored high in our matrix the future in the region looks grim and targeted conservation actions, incorporating macroecological and global perspectives, may be needed to alleviate severe population declines. We further demonstrate that climate change is predicted to significantly reduce the current breeding range of species adapted to cold climates in Subarctic and Arctic Europe. The number of incubation days and whether the species was a habitat specialist or not were also among the variables most strongly related to predicted contraction or expansion of species' breeding ranges. This approach may aid the identification of vulnerable bird species worldwide.
PubMed ID
28052503 View in PubMed
Less detail

6 records – page 1 of 1.