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Heat balance at -5 degrees C after cold water immersion

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2945
Source
Pages 738-741 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
  1 document  
Author
Rintamaki, H.
Hassi, J.
Makinen, T.
Koskenvuo, K.
Author Affiliation
Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
Source
Pages 738-741 in R. Fortuine et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 96. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, Alaska, 1996. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Supp 1.
Date
1998
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Cold water immersion
Finland
Abstract
Two different possible behaviors at -5 degrees C after cold water immersion were studied. A test subject wearing winter clothing walked (5 km/h) on a treadmill for 45 minutes at -5 degrees C and at a wind velocity of 3 m/s with dry clothing, immediately after a thorough immersion in 5 degrees C water, or after immersion and wringing, freezing, and beating of the clothing (to remove ice). A marked heat debt (ca. 1000 kJ) was measured at the end of the cold water immersion. Attempts to dry the clothing caused an additional heat debt of ca. 300 kJ. After 45 minutes walking, the difference in heat depth between the treatments was nearly the same as before the exercise. The difference in clothing weight was only 0.9 kg between the two treatments after walking. Beating frozen clothing items could remove ice corresponding to only 0.7% of the wet weight of the clothing. Results suggest that after cold water immersion in winter, the undressing procedure could not be recommended. Instead, after initially removing boots, mittens, and hat, the subject should start walking. The water accumulated in boots and mittens should be poured out when necessary.
Documents
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Source
Pages 29-31 in N. Murphy and S. Krivoschekov, eds. Circumpolar Health 2006: Gateway to the International Polar Year. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Novosibirsk, Russia, 2006. Alaska Medicine. 2007;49 (2 Suppl):29-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
) :13-28. 5. Makinen TT, Gavhed D, Holmer I, Rintamaki H. Effects of metabolic rate on thermal responses at different air velocities in -10 degrees C. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2001;128(4):759-768. 6. Gavhed D, Makinen T, Holmer I, Rintamaki H. Face cooling by cold wind in
  1 document  
Author
Rintamaki, H.
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
Source
Pages 29-31 in N. Murphy and S. Krivoschekov, eds. Circumpolar Health 2006: Gateway to the International Polar Year. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Novosibirsk, Russia, 2006. Alaska Medicine. 2007;49 (2 Suppl):29-31
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Cold
Thermogenesis
Thermoreceptor
Thermoregulation
Vasoconstriction
Vasodilatation
Abstract
The thermoneutral ambient temperature for naked and resting humans is ca. 27 degrees C. Exposure to cold stimulates cold receptors of the skin which causes cold thermal sensations and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction in skin, arms and legs. Diminished skin and extremity blood flow increases the thermal insulation of superficial tissues more than 300% corresponding to 0.9 clo (0.13 degrees C x m(-2) x W(-1)). With thermoregulatory vasoconstriction/ vasodilatation the body heat balance can be maintained within a range of ca. 4 degrees C, the middle of the range being at ca. 21 degrees C when light clothing is used. Below the thermoneutral zone metabolic heat production (shivering) is stimulated and above the zone starts heat loss by evaporation (sweating). Cold induced vasoconstriction increases blood pressure and viscosity and decreases plasma volume consequently increasing cardiac work. Cold induced hypertensive response can be counteracted by light exercise, while starting heavy work in cold markedly increases blood pressure. Under very cold conditions the sympathetic stimulation opens the anastomoses between arterioles and venules which increases skin temperatures markedly but temporarily, especially in finger tips. Adaptation to cold takes ca. 2 weeks, whereafter the physiological responses to cold are attenuated and cold exposure is subjectively considered less stressful.
PubMed ID
17929604 View in PubMed
Documents
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Impacts of cold climate on human heat balance, performance and health in circumpolar areas

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82839
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):459-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
  1 website  
Author
Hassi, J
Rytkönen, M
Kotaniemi, J
Rintamäki, H
Author Affiliation
Centre for Arctic Medicine, Thule Institute, University of Oulu, Finland. juhani.hassi@oulu.fi
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):459-67
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular responses
Cold injury
Cold-related illnesses
Heat balance
Hormonal responses
Immune responses
Prevention
Symptoms
Thermal environment
Abstract
In circumpolar areas the climate remains cool or thermoneutral during the majority of the days of the year spite of global warming. Therefore, health consequences related to cold exposure represent also in the future the majority of climate-related adverse health effects. Hot summers may be an exception. At ambient temperatures below +10 - +12 degrees C, humans experience cold stress of varying degree. Man can compensate a 10 degrees C change in ambient temperature by changing metabolic heat production by 30-40 W m(-2) or by wearing an additional/taking off ca. 0.4 clo units (corresponding to one thick clothing layer). Cold ambient temperature may be a risk for human health and cause varying levels of performance limitations. The impacts of cold exposure on health and wellbeing cause a burden to many societies in terms of lowered productivity and higher costs related to health care systems as well as public health planning and management. In order to provide preventive and protective public health actions for cold-induced adverse health effects, it is important to recognize cold related injuries, illnesses and symptoms and their turn-up temperatures, and to identify the most at-risk population subgroups and factors that increase or decrease the health risks posed by cold ambient temperatures. The majority of cold-related harmful health impacts can be prevented or managed by correct preventive and protective actions. Rapid unpredictable changes are more difficult to compensate because of lack of experience (affecting attitude and skills), preparedness (vehicles, garments, supplies, logistics etc.) and/or acclimatization.
PubMed ID
16440608 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Outdoor clothing: its relationship to geography, climate, behaviour and cold-related mortality in Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301019
Source
International Journal of Biometeorology. 2001 Feb;45(1):45-51.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
Donaldson GC
Rintamäki H
Näyhä S
Source
International Journal of Biometeorology. 2001 Feb;45(1):45-51.
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Behavior
Clothing
Cold Climate
adverse effects
Europe
Epidemiology
Female
Geography
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Abstract
It has been suggested, that the inhabitants of northern European regions, who experience little cold-related mortality, protect themselves outdoors by wearing more clothing, at the same temperature, than people living in southern regions where such mortality is high. Outdoor clothing data were collected in eight regions from 6583 people divided by sex and age group (50-59 and 65-74 years). Across Europe, the total clothing worn (as assessed by dry thermal insulation and numbers of items or layers) increased significantly with cold, wind, less physical activity and longer periods outdoors. Men wore 0.14 clo (1 clo = 0.115 m2 K W-1) more than women and the older people wore 0.05 clo more than the younger group (both P
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Sequelae of moderate finger frostbite as assessed by subjective sensations, clinical signs, and thermophysiological responses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293902
Source
International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2000 Apr;59(2):137-45.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000