Although many studies have investigated the possible association between analgesic use (acetaminophen and aspirin) and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of analgesics on the progression of established CKD of any cause has not yet been investigated.
In this population-based Swedish cohort study, we investigated the decline over 5-7 years in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among 801 patients with incident, advanced CKD (serum creatinine >3.4 mg/dL for men, >2.8 mg/dL for women for the first time) and with different analgesic exposures. Lifetime analgesic use and current regular use were ascertained through in-person interviews at inclusion while data on analgesic use during the follow-up was abstracted from the medical records at the end of the study period. A linear regression slope, based on their eGFR values during the follow-up, provided a summary of within-individual change. In the final multivariate analyses, a linear mixed effects model was implemented to assess the relation of analgesic use and change in eGFR over time.
The progression rate for regular users of acetaminophen was slower than that for non-regular users (regular users progressed 0.93 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year slower than non-regular users; 95% CI 0.03, 1.8). For regular users of aspirin, the progression rate was significantly slower than that for non-regular users (regular users progressed 0.80 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year slower than non-regular users; 95% CI 0.1, 1.5). Different levels of lifetime cumulative dose of acetaminophen and aspirin did not significantly affect the progression rate.
We suggest that single substance acetaminophen and aspirin may be safe to use by patients with diagnosed advanced CKD stage 4-5 without an adverse effect on the progression rate of the disease.
PURPOSE: Few epidemiological studies have been conducted among middle-aged women on long-term total and specific physical activity (PA) trends. We studied in a cross-sectional setting the relationship of self-reported total daily PA with age and calendar time. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 38,988 women aged 49-83 yr in central Sweden, information was collected on physical activity, such as work or occupation, household work, walking or bicycling, exercise, watching TV or reading, and other lifestyle factors through a self-administered questionnaire. Total and specific daily PA levels at ages 15, 30, and 50 yr were recalled retrospectively and measured as metabolic equivalents (MET.h.d(-1)). RESULTS: Total PA level linearly decreased with calendar time in all three age groups (slope for 5-yr change in calendar time among those 15 yr of age = -0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.86 to -0.78; among those 30 yr of age=-0.42; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.38; and among those 50 yr of age = -0.62; 95% CI, -0.66 to -0.58). High-intensity activities such as walking or bicycling decreased by 0.21 MET.h.d(-1) (95% CI, -0.22 to -0.20) every 5-calendar-year change among adolescents between the 1930s and 1960s. Total activity level decreased in all age groups by an average of approximately 3MET.h(-1).d(-1), corresponding to approximately 45 min of brisk walking. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that intervention efforts aimed at engaging in healthful amounts of physical activity are needed throughout the life cycle.
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Despite a large public health interest in physical activity and its role in obesity and other chronic diseases, only few reports to date have addressed total levels and trends of physical activity. We have studied in a cross-sectional setting with a retrospective recall of physical activity an association of levels of total physical activity and different types of activities with age and with calendar-time. METHODS: In a population-based study of 33,466 men aged 45-79 yr in central Sweden, information on physical activity and other lifestyle factors was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Level of total activity at ages 15, 30, and 50 yr was assessed quantitatively, based on six questions on different activities: work/occupation, housework, walking/bicycling, exercise, inactive leisure time, and sleeping. The physical activity levels were measured as metabolic equivalents, MET-hours per days. RESULTS: Total daily physical activity decreased at age 30 yr (-1.6%, 95% CI: -1.7, -1.4) and at age 50 yr (-3.9%, 95% CI: -4.0, -3.7) compared with age 15 yr. Total physical activity decreased over a period of 60 yr in all three separate age groups (-9.1% among 15-yr-olds, 95% CI: -9.8, -8.5; -2.3% among 30-yr-olds 95% CI: -3.0, -1.6; and -2.9% among 50-yr-olds, 95% CI: -3.4, -2.5). CONCLUSION: These negative trends in physical activity observed by age and with time might explain the trends in increasing prevalence of obesity.
Misreporting food intake is common because most health screenings rely on self-reports. The more accurate methods (eg, weighing food) are costly, time consuming, and impractical.
We developed a new instrument for reporting food intake--an Internet-based interactive virtual food plate. The objective of this study was to validate this instrument's ability to assess lunch intake.
Participants were asked to compose an ordinary lunch meal using both a virtual and a real lunch plate (with real food on a real plate). The participants ate their real lunch meals on-site. Before and after pictures of the composed lunch meals were taken. Both meals included identical food items. Participants were randomized to start with either instrument. The 2 instruments were compared using correlation and concordance measures (total energy intake, nutritional components, quantity of food, and participant characteristics).
A total of 55 men (median age: 45 years, median body mass index [BMI]: 25.8 kg/m(2)) participated. We found an overall overestimation of reported median energy intake using the computer plate (3044 kJ, interquartile range [IQR] 1202 kJ) compared with the real lunch plate (2734 kJ, IQR 1051 kJ, P
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy men. However, the association between treatment for ED and death or cardiovascular outcomes after a first myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown.
In a Swedish nationwide cohort study all men 5 dispensed prescriptions of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors was reduced by 34% (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.15), 53% (HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.87) and 81% (HR 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.45), respectively, when compared with alprostadil treatment.
Treatment for ED after a first MI was associated with a reduced mortality and heart failure hospitalisation. Only men treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors had a reduced risk, which appeared to be dose-dependent.
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Body Mass index (BMI) has been shown to affect risk and mortality of several cancers. Prostate cancer and obesity are major public health concerns for middle-aged and older men. Previous studies of pre-diagnostic BMI have found an increased risk of prostate cancer mortality in obese patients.
To study the associations between BMI at time of prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer specific and overall mortality.
BMI was analyzed both as a continuous variable and categorized into four groups based on the observed distribution in the cohort (BMI?
Maternal caffeine intake has repeatedly been linked to babies being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA babies are known to be at increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between prenatal caffeine exposure and neonatal health.
The study is based on 67,569 full-term singleton mother-infant pairs from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Caffeine consumption from different sources was self-reported in gestational week 22. Neonatal compound outcomes, namely (1) morbidity/mortality and (2) neonatal intervention, were created based on the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Adjusted logistic regression was performed.
Caffeine exposure was associated to SGA (OR?=?1.16, 95%CI: 1.10; 1.23) and being born SGA was significantly associated with neonatal health (OR?=?3.09, 95%CI: 2.54; 3.78 for morbidity/mortality; OR?=?3.94, 95%CI: 3.50; 4.45 for intervention). However, prenatal caffeine exposure was neither associated with neonatal morbidity/mortality (OR?=?1.01, 95%CI: 0.96; 1.07) nor neonatal intervention (OR?=?1.02, 95%CI: 1.00; 1.05 for a 100?mg caffeine intake increase). Results did not change after additional adjustment for SGA status.
The association between diet and cancer, predominantly investigated univariately, has often been inconsistent, possibly because of the large number of candidate risk factors and their high intercorrelations. Analysis of dietary patterns is expected to give more insight than analysis of single nutrients or foods. This study aimed to develop and apply a common methodological approach to determine dietary patterns in four cohort studies originating in Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Italy. Food items on each of the food frequency questionnaires were aggregated into 51 food groups, defined on the basis of their position in the diet pattern and possible relevance to cancer etiology. Exploratory factor analysis was used to analyze dietary patterns. Using a standardized approach, 3-5 stable dietary patterns were identified, explaining 20-29% of total variance in consumption of the food groups. Two dietary patterns, which explained most of the variance, were consistent across the studies. The first pattern was characterized by high consumption of (salad) vegetables, the second by high consumption of pork, processed meat and potatoes. In addition, a few specifically national food patterns were identified. Sensitivity analyses showed that the identified patterns were robust for number of factors extracted, distribution of input variables and energy adjustment. Our findings suggest that some important eating patterns are shared by the four populations under study, whereas other eating patterns are population specific.
The incidence of readmissions because of delayed intracranial complications within 3 weeks after observation for the sole diagnosis of concussion was examined in a national cohort. A nested case-control design was used to analyze the association between clinical factors as well as early computed tomography (CT) scan examination and these complications.
Out of 100,784 patients hospitalized because of concussion during ten years, 127 (0.13%) patients were readmitted because of a delayed intracranial complication. High clinical severity grade (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.6), minor CT scan abnormalities (OR 1.7, CI 0.8-3.4) and male gender (OR 2.2, CI 1.4-3.5) were associated with an increased risk of delayed, intracranial complications.
The incidence of delayed intracranial complications after primarily uncomplicated concussion was low. High clinical severity grade and male gender were risk factors. We failed to demonstrate an additional value of the acute CT scan examination to predict these complications.