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Sea surface temperature predicts the movements of an Arctic cetacean: the bowhead whale.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292553
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 25; 8(1):9658
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-25-2018
Author
Philippine Chambault
Christoffer Moesgaard Albertsen
Toby A Patterson
Rikke G Hansen
Outi Tervo
Kristin L Laidre
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Strandgade 91, 2, DK-1401, Copenhagen, Denmark. philippine.chambault@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 25; 8(1):9658
Date
Jun-25-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The effects of climate change constitute a major concern in Arctic waters due to the rapid decline of sea ice, which may strongly alter the movements and habitat availability of Arctic marine mammals. We tracked 98 bowhead whales by satellite over an 11-year period (2001-2011) in Baffin Bay - West Greenland to investigate the environmental drivers (specifically sea surface temperature and sea ice) involved in bowhead whale's movements. Movement patterns differed according to season, with aggregations of whales found at higher latitudes during spring and summer likely in response to sea-ice retreat and increasing sea temperature (SST) facilitated by the warm West Greenland Current. In contrast, the whales moved further south in response to sea temperature decrease during autumn and winter. Statistical models indicated that the whales targeted a narrow range of SSTs from -0.5 to 2?°C. Sea surface temperatures are predicted to undergo a marked increase in the Arctic, which could expose bowhead whales to both thermal stress and altered stratification and vertical transport of water masses. With such profound changes, bowhead whales may face extensive habitat loss. Our results highlight the need for closer investigation and monitoring in order to predict the extent of future distribution changes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29942009 View in PubMed
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Some like it cold: Temperature-dependent habitat selection by narwhals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305129
Source
Ecol Evol. 2020 Aug; 10(15):8073-8090
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2020
Author
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Susanna B Blackwell
Terrie M Williams
Mikkel Holger S Sinding
Mikkel Skovrind
Outi M Tervo
Eva Garde
Rikke G Hansen
Nynne H Nielsen
M?nh Cu?ng Ngô
Susanne Ditlevsen
Author Affiliation
Greenland Institute of Natural Resources Copenhagen Denmark.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2020 Aug; 10(15):8073-8090
Date
Aug-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) is a high-Arctic species inhabiting areas that are experiencing increases in sea temperatures, which together with reduction in sea ice are expected to modify the niches of several Arctic marine apex predators. The Scoresby Sound fjord complex in East Greenland is the summer residence for an isolated population of narwhals. The movements of 12 whales instrumented with Fastloc-GPS transmitters were studied during summer in Scoresby Sound and at their offshore winter ground in 2017-2019. An additional four narwhals provided detailed hydrographic profiles on both summer and winter grounds. Data on diving of the whales were obtained from 20 satellite-linked time-depth recorders and 16 Acousonde™ recorders that also provided information on the temperature and depth of buzzes. In summer, the foraging whales targeted depths between 300 and 850 m where the preferred areas visited by the whales had temperatures ranging between 0.6 and 1.5°C (mean = 1.1°C, SD = 0.22). The highest probability of buzzing activity during summer was at a temperature of 0.7°C and at depths > 300 m. The whales targeted similar depths at their offshore winter ground where the temperature was slightly higher (range: 0.7-1.7°C, mean = 1.3°C, SD = 0.29). Both the probability of buzzing events and the spatial distribution of the whales in both seasons demonstrated a preferential selection of cold water. This was particularly pronounced in winter where cold coastal water was selected and warm Atlantic water farther offshore was avoided. It is unknown if the small temperature niche of whales while feeding is because prey is concentrated at these temperature gradients and is easier to capture at low temperatures, or because there are limitations in the thermoregulation of the whales. In any case, the small niche requirements together with their strong site fidelity emphasize the sensitivity of narwhals to changes in the thermal characteristics of their habitats.
PubMed ID
32788962 View in PubMed
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Spatial and temporal patterns of sound production in East Greenland narwhals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292307
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Susanna B Blackwell
Outi M Tervo
Alexander S Conrad
Mikkel H S Sinding
Rikke G Hansen
Susanne Ditlevsen
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Greeneridge Sciences, Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Changes in climate are rapidly modifying the Arctic environment. As a result, human activities-and the sounds they produce-are predicted to increase in remote areas of Greenland, such as those inhabited by the narwhals (Monodon monoceros) of East Greenland. Meanwhile, nothing is known about these whales' acoustic behavior or their reactions to anthropogenic sounds. This lack of knowledge was addressed by instrumenting six narwhals in Scoresby Sound (Aug 2013-2016) with Acousonde™ acoustic tags and satellite tags. Continuous recordings over up to seven days were used to describe the acoustic behavior of the whales, in particular their use of three types of sounds serving two different purposes: echolocation clicks and buzzes, which serve feeding, and calls, presumably used for social communication. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of location in time and space on buzzing and calling rates. Buzzes were mostly produced at depths of 350-650 m and buzzing rates were higher in one particular fjord, likely a preferred feeding area. Calls generally occurred at shallower depths (
Notes
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PubMed ID
29897955 View in PubMed
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Spatial and temporal patterns of sound production in East Greenland narwhals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296868
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Susanna B Blackwell
Outi M Tervo
Alexander S Conrad
Mikkel H S Sinding
Rikke G Hansen
Susanne Ditlevsen
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Greeneridge Sciences, Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198295
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acoustics - instrumentation
Animals
Arctic Regions
Echolocation - physiology
Female
Greenland
Logistic Models
Male
Sound Spectrography - instrumentation - methods
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Vocalization, Animal - physiology
Whales - physiology
Abstract
Changes in climate are rapidly modifying the Arctic environment. As a result, human activities-and the sounds they produce-are predicted to increase in remote areas of Greenland, such as those inhabited by the narwhals (Monodon monoceros) of East Greenland. Meanwhile, nothing is known about these whales' acoustic behavior or their reactions to anthropogenic sounds. This lack of knowledge was addressed by instrumenting six narwhals in Scoresby Sound (Aug 2013-2016) with Acousonde™ acoustic tags and satellite tags. Continuous recordings over up to seven days were used to describe the acoustic behavior of the whales, in particular their use of three types of sounds serving two different purposes: echolocation clicks and buzzes, which serve feeding, and calls, presumably used for social communication. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of location in time and space on buzzing and calling rates. Buzzes were mostly produced at depths of 350-650 m and buzzing rates were higher in one particular fjord, likely a preferred feeding area. Calls generally occurred at shallower depths (
PubMed ID
29897955 View in PubMed
Less detail