Skip header and navigation

Refine By

17 records – page 1 of 2.

Amplification of plant volatile defence against insect herbivory in a warming Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300874
Source
Nat Plants. 2019 06; 5(6):568-574
Publication Type
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2019
Author
Tao Li
Thomas Holst
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. tao.li@bio.ku.dk.
Source
Nat Plants. 2019 06; 5(6):568-574
Date
06-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play fundamental roles in atmospheric chemistry and ecological processes by contributing to aerosol formation1 and mediating species interactions2. Rising temperatures and the associated shifts in vegetation composition have been shown to be the primary drivers of plant VOC emissions in Arctic ecosystems3. Although herbivorous insects also strongly alter plant VOC emissions2, no studies have addressed the impact of herbivory on plant VOC emissions in the Arctic. Here we show that warming dramatically increases the amount, and alters the blend, of VOCs released in response to herbivory. We observed that a tundra ecosystem subjected to warming, by open-top chambers, for 8 or 18 years showed a fourfold increase in leaf area eaten by insect herbivores. Herbivory by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) larvae, and herbivory-mimicking methyl jasmonate application, on the widespread circumpolar dwarf birch (Betula nana) both substantially increased emissions of terpenoids. The long-term warming treatments and mimicked herbivory caused, on average, a two- and fourfold increase in monoterpene emissions, respectively. When combined, emissions increased 11-fold, revealing a strong synergy between warming and herbivory. The synergistic effect was even more pronounced for homoterpene emissions. These findings suggest that, in the rapidly warming Arctic, insect herbivory may be a primary determinant of VOC emissions during periods of active herbivore feeding.
PubMed ID
31182843 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290127
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 15; 573:131-138
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-15-2016
Author
Sarah Hagel Svendsen
Frida Lindwall
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK -2100 Copenhagen E, Denmark; Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geoscience and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK -1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 15; 573:131-138
Date
Dec-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Ericaceae - growth & development
Greenland
Rosaceae - growth & development
Salix - growth & development
Soil - chemistry
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
Water - analysis
Abstract
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of BVOC emissions from a high arctic soil moisture gradient extending from dry tundra to a wet fen. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were sampled five times in the July-August period using a push-pull enclosure technique, and BVOCs trapped in absorbent cartridges were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species compositions were estimated using the point intercept method. In order to take into account important underlying ecosystem processes, gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production were measured in connection with chamber-based BVOC measurements. Highest emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil moisture, suggesting that high arctic BVOC emissions may affect the climate differently if soil water content and plant cover change.
PubMed ID
27552736 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275488
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Aug 20;573:131-138
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2016
Author
Sarah Hagel Svendsen
Frida Lindwall
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Aug 20;573:131-138
Date
Aug-20-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of BVOC emissions from a high arctic soil moisture gradient extending from dry tundra to a wet fen. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were sampled five times in the July-August period using a push-pull enclosure technique, and BVOCs trapped in absorbent cartridges were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species compositions were estimated using the point intercept method. In order to take into account important underlying ecosystem processes, gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production were measured in connection with chamber-based BVOC measurements. Highest emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil moisture, suggesting that high arctic BVOC emissions may affect the climate differently if soil water content and plant cover change.
PubMed ID
27552736 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biogenic volatile release from permafrost thaw is determined by the soil microbial sink.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294651
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 24; 9(1):3412
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-24-2018
Author
Magnus Kramshøj
Christian N Albers
Thomas Holst
Rupert Holzinger
Bo Elberling
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 24; 9(1):3412
Date
Aug-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Warming in the Arctic accelerates thawing of permafrost-affected soils, which leads to a release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. We do not know whether permafrost thaw also releases non-methane volatile organic compounds that can contribute to both negative and positive radiative forcing on climate. Here we show using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry that substantial amounts of ethanol and methanol and in total 316 organic ions were released from Greenlandic permafrost soils upon thaw in laboratory incubations. We demonstrate that the majority of this release is taken up in the active layer above. In an experiment using 14C-labeled ethanol and methanol, we demonstrate that these compounds are consumed by microorganisms. Our findings highlight that the thawing permafrost soils are not only a considerable source of volatile organic compounds but also that the active layer regulates their release into the atmosphere.
Notes
Cites: Microbiology. 2004 Jan;150(Pt 1):171-80 PMID 14702410
Cites: Plant Cell Environ. 2014 Aug;37(8):1866-91 PMID 24689847
Cites: Front Microbiol. 2017 Sep 19;8:1741 PMID 28974946
Cites: FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007 Jul;61(1):1-15 PMID 17428301
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 10;112(45):13946-51 PMID 26504243
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Jan;23(1):406-420 PMID 27197084
Cites: Science. 2009 Dec 11;326(5959):1525-9 PMID 20007897
Cites: Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Jun;12(6):414-25 PMID 24814065
Cites: Adv Space Res. 2004;33(8):1215-21 PMID 15806703
Cites: Nature. 2011 Nov 06;480(7377):368-71 PMID 22056985
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jun;21(6):2410-23 PMID 25788025
Cites: Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):171-9 PMID 25855454
Cites: ISME J. 2014 Jan;8(1):139-49 PMID 23985750
Cites: FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009 Nov;300(1):1-10 PMID 19583792
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Nov 20;82(3):878-87 PMID 26590282
Cites: Nat Rev Microbiol. 2003 Dec;1(3):200-8 PMID 15035024
Cites: J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2010 Jun;21(6):1037-44 PMID 20335047
Cites: Science. 2013 Aug 9;341(6146):643-7 PMID 23929979
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Feb 21;46(4):2283-90 PMID 22296026
PubMed ID
30143640 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biogenic volatile release from permafrost thaw is determined by the soil microbial sink.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296838
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 24; 9(1):3412
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-24-2018
Author
Magnus Kramshøj
Christian N Albers
Thomas Holst
Rupert Holzinger
Bo Elberling
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 24; 9(1):3412
Date
08-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Climate
Ethanol - metabolism
Methanol - metabolism
Permafrost
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Warming in the Arctic accelerates thawing of permafrost-affected soils, which leads to a release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. We do not know whether permafrost thaw also releases non-methane volatile organic compounds that can contribute to both negative and positive radiative forcing on climate. Here we show using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry that substantial amounts of ethanol and methanol and in total 316 organic ions were released from Greenlandic permafrost soils upon thaw in laboratory incubations. We demonstrate that the majority of this release is taken up in the active layer above. In an experiment using 14C-labeled ethanol and methanol, we demonstrate that these compounds are consumed by microorganisms. Our findings highlight that the thawing permafrost soils are not only a considerable source of volatile organic compounds but also that the active layer regulates their release into the atmosphere.
PubMed ID
30143640 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change alters leaf anatomy but has no effects on volatile emissions from arctic plants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260894
Source
Plant Cell Environ. 2015 Mar 4;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-4-2015
Author
Michelle Schollert
Minna Kivimäenpää
Hanna M Valolahti
Riikka Rinnan
Source
Plant Cell Environ. 2015 Mar 4;
Date
Mar-4-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are expected to change substantially due to the rapid advancement of climate change in the Arctic. BVOC emission changes can feed back both positively and negatively on climate warming. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature and shading on BVOC emissions from arctic plant species Empetrum hermaphroditum, Cassiope tetragona, Betula nana and Salix arctica. Measurements were performed in situ in long-term field experiments in Subarctic and High Arctic using a dynamic enclosure system and collection of BVOCs into adsorbent cartridges analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to assess whether the treatments had resulted in anatomical adaptations, we additionally examined leaf anatomy using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Against expectations based on the known temperature and light-dependency of BVOC emissions, the emissions were barely affected by the treatments. In contrast, leaf anatomy of the studied plants was significantly altered in response to the treatments, and these responses appear to differ from species found at lower latitudes. We suggest that leaf anatomical acclimation may partially explain the lacking treatment effects on BVOC emissions at plant shoot-level. However, more studies are needed to unravel why BVOC emission responses in arctic plants differ from temperate species.
PubMed ID
25737381 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274131
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Sep;21(9):3478-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Hanna Valolahti
Minna Kivimäenpää
Patrick Faubert
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Sep;21(9):3478-88
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Betula - chemistry
Climate change
Ecosystem
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Global warming
Plant Leaves - chemistry
Seasons
Sweden
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
Abstract
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2??C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor indirectly affecting the BVOC emission potentials and composition.
Notes
Cites: J Evol Biol. 2007 Jan;20(1):369-8017210030
Cites: Chemosphere. 2008 Jun;72(3):343-6418279913
Cites: Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2008 Dec 28;366(1885):4613-2618826917
Cites: New Phytol. 2008;180(4):853-6318680543
Cites: New Phytol. 2009;183(1):27-5119422541
Cites: Trends Plant Sci. 2010 Mar;15(3):154-6620133178
Cites: Trends Plant Sci. 2010 Mar;15(3):176-8420144557
Cites: New Phytol. 2010 Jul;187(1):199-20820456056
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Feb;15(2):164-7522136670
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e3484222511968
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013 Aug 19;368(1624):2012048823836792
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18180-424145400
Cites: Plant Cell Environ. 2014 Aug;37(8):1776-8924601952
Cites: Plant Cell Environ. 2014 Aug;37(8):1892-90424738697
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2007 Jul;10(7):619-2717542940
Cites: Plant Physiol. 2008 Mar;146(3):818-2418316635
Cites: Science. 2001 Oct 26;294(5543):793-511679652
Cites: Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2002;53:299-32812221978
Cites: Science. 2004 Apr 30;304(5671):722-515118159
Cites: Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):657-6016179434
PubMed ID
25994223 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contrasting above- and belowground organic matter decomposition and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in response to warming in High Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287587
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Dec 13;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-13-2017
Author
Daan Blok
Samuel Faucherre
Imre Banyasz
Riikka Rinnan
Anders Michelsen
Bo Elberling
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Dec 13;
Date
Dec-13-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates. Here, we assess the impacts of experimental warming on turnover rates of leaf litter, active layer soil, and thawed permafrost sediment in two high-arctic tundra heath sites in NE-Greenland, either dominated by evergreen or deciduous shrubs. We incubated shrub leaf litter on the surface of control and warmed plots for one and two years. Active layer soil was collected from the plots to assess the effects of eight years of field warming on soil carbon stocks. Finally, we incubated open cores filled with newly thawed permafrost soil for two years in the active layer of the same plots. After field incubation, we measured basal respiration rates of recovered thawed permafrost cores in the lab. Warming significantly reduced litter mass loss by 26% after one year incubation, but differences in litter mass loss among treatments disappeared after two years incubation. Warming also reduced litter nitrogen mineralization and decreased the litter carbon to nitrogen ratio. Active layer soil carbon stocks were 15% reduced by warming, while soil dissolved nitrogen was reduced by half in warmed plots. Warming had a positive legacy effect on carbon turnover rates in thawed permafrost cores, with 10% higher respiration rates measured in cores from warmed plots. These results demonstrate that warming may have contrasting effects on above- and belowground tundra carbon turnover, possibly governed by microbial resource availability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
29235209 View in PubMed
Less detail

Contrasting above- and belowground organic matter decomposition and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in response to warming in High Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296993
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 06; 24(6):2660-2672
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Daan Blok
Samuel Faucherre
Imre Banyasz
Riikka Rinnan
Anders Michelsen
Bo Elberling
Author Affiliation
Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 06; 24(6):2660-2672
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon Cycle
Global warming
Greenland
Nitrogen Cycle
Permafrost
Soil - chemistry
Tundra
Abstract
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates. Here, we assess the impacts of experimental warming on turnover rates of leaf litter, active layer soil and thawed permafrost sediment in two high-arctic tundra heath sites in NE-Greenland, either dominated by evergreen or deciduous shrubs. We incubated shrub leaf litter on the surface of control and warmed plots for 1 and 2 years. Active layer soil was collected from the plots to assess the effects of 8 years of field warming on soil carbon stocks. Finally, we incubated open cores filled with newly thawed permafrost soil for 2 years in the active layer of the same plots. After field incubation, we measured basal respiration rates of recovered thawed permafrost cores in the lab. Warming significantly reduced litter mass loss by 26% after 1 year incubation, but differences in litter mass loss among treatments disappeared after 2 years incubation. Warming also reduced litter nitrogen mineralization and decreased the litter carbon to nitrogen ratio. Active layer soil carbon stocks were reduced 15% by warming, while soil dissolved nitrogen was reduced by half in warmed plots. Warming had a positive legacy effect on carbon turnover rates in thawed permafrost cores, with 10% higher respiration rates measured in cores from warmed plots. These results demonstrate that warming may have contrasting effects on above- and belowground tundra carbon turnover, possibly governed by microbial resource availability.
PubMed ID
29235209 View in PubMed
Less detail

Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions- A field Study in the Sub, Low and High Arctic on the Effect of Temperature and Light.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262032
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123610
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Frida Lindwall
Patrick Faubert
Riikka Rinnan
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123610
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during daytime. We measured BVOC emissions during 24-hour periods in the field using a push-pull chamber technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges followed by analysis with gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Five different arctic vegetation communities were examined: high arctic heaths dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, low arctic heaths dominated by Salix glauca and Betula nana and a subarctic peatland dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and the sedge Eriophorum russeolum. We also addressed how climate warming affects the 24-hour emission and how the daytime emissions respond to sudden darkness. The emissions from the high arctic sites were lowest and had a strong diel variation with almost no emissions during night-time. The low arctic sites as well as the subarctic site had a more stable release of BVOCs during the 24-hour period with night-time emissions in the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes a-fenchene, a -phellandrene, 3-carene and a-terpinene as well as isoprene were absent in dark measurements during the day. Warming by open top chambers increased the emission rates both in the high and low arctic sites, forewarning higher emissions in a future warmer climate in the Arctic.
PubMed ID
25897519 View in PubMed
Less detail

17 records – page 1 of 2.