INTRODUCTION: Mild induced hypothermia holds promise as an effective neuroprotective strategy following acute stroke and cardiac arrest. Dependable noninvasive measurements of brain temperature are imperative for the investigation and clinical application of therapeutic hypothermia. Although the tympanic membrane temperature correlates best with brain temperature, it is a cumbersome location to record from continuously in the clinical setting. Data are lacking regarding the relationship between rectal and tympanic temperatures in nonintubated humans undergoing induced hypothermia via surface cooling. METHODS: We induced mild hypothermia in healthy volunteers using a novel surface cooling method (Arctic Sun Temperature Management System, Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO). Core temperatures were recorded at the tympanic membrane (Ttym) and rectum (Trec). The gradient was defined as (Ttym-Trec). Controlled hypothermia was maintained for up to 300 minutes with a target Ttym of 34 degrees C to 35 degrees C; subjects were then actively rewarmed to a target Ttym of 36 degrees C over 1.5 to 3 hours. RESULTS: Twenty-two volunteers (10 males and 12 females) 31 +/- 8 years of age were studied. Subjects showed a triphasic temperature response: induction, maintenance, and rewarming. The mean gradient at baseline was -0.1 +/- 0.3 degrees C and the maximum gradient increased to -0.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C at 105 minutes. During maintenance of hypothermia (from 150 to 300 minutes), the mean gradient was -0.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C (95% confidence limits, -1.2 degrees C to 0.6 degrees C). CONCLUSIONS:: Our data suggest that Ttym and Trec are not related during the induction of hypothermia via surface cooling but correlate during the maintenance phase, with a -0.3 degrees C gradient. These findings support the use of rectal temperature as a measure of tympanic and, therefore, brain temperature during maintenance of induced hypothermia in nonintubated humans.
Erratum In: J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2005 Jan;17(1):following table of contents
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Induced hypothermia holds promise as an effective neuroprotective strategy following cerebral ischemia. The effect of mild hypothermia on cerebral hemodynamics is not well known. The authors investigated the influence of brain temperature on middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity (MCA FV) and pulsatility index (MCA PI) in nonintubated, healthy volunteers undergoing mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: Mild hypothermia (target tympanic membrane temperature [T tym] degrees C) was induced in subjects using the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc, Louisville, CO). MCA FV and MCA PI were recorded bilaterally with a 2 MHz pulsed probe every 30 minutes via the transtemporal window. RESULTS: Eighteen subjects (8 males, 10 females) 32 +/- 8 years of age were studied. Multivariate analysis indicated that MCA FV increased with increasing change in temperature (baseline tympanic temperature-tympanic temperature [DeltaT tym]) (P