In July 1974, mebendazole was reported to be effective against the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus in experimentally infected mice. A clinical trial of mebendazole was initiated in December 1974 in 4 patients with far advanced, nonresectable lesions caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. A daily dose of 40 mg of the drug per kg of body weight was administered to the 4 patients for more than 3 years. No evidence of toxicity or adverse reactions has been observed. Detectable plasma mebendazole concentrations were achieved with high-dose mebendazole therapy. Serum concentrations of IgE increased and decreased early in therapy. There was no evidence that the larval cestode was killed. The metastatic lesions appeared to be stabilized or diminished, and over-all clinical results were encouraging. Progressively enlarging thoracic metastases in 2 patients regressed during therapy, and symptomatic improvement was observed in all 4 patients. Mebendazole, a highly effective antihelmintic in enteric infections, is poorly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Resulting low serum concentrations limit treatment of the massive, scirrhous lesions characteristic of E. multilocularis infections. Nevertheless, encouraging clinical responses observed with mebendazole therapy suggest that a more soluble form of this or a related drug might prove highly effective in the medical management of hydatid disease in humans.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2087.
The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol’skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3 % of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80 % of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10 %. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2 % of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region ; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere ; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4 %, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89 %) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40 %). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice.
An investigation of a possible relationship between Diphyllobothrium (fish tapeworm) infection and microcytic anaemia among Eskimos was carried out during 1957–1958 at the village of Hooper Bay in western Alaska. Such infections did not contribute to anaemia in residents of this region, a finding in agreement with those of TÖTTERMAN 1947 in Finland. Species of diphyllobothriid cestodes recorded from the lower Kuskokwim River region are listed, and other helminths recorded from man in this area are briefly discussed. Schistocephalus solidus (Mueller 1776) is reported from man, apparently for the first time.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2118.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 940.
In October, 1963, during a time of abundance of microtine rodents, Pasteurella tularensis was isolated from a northern vole, Microtus oeconomus Pallas, at the Ugashik Lakes on the upper Alaska Peninsula. The morphological, cultural, and serological characteristics of this isolate are described, and comparative virulence in experimentally inoculated animals, including series of indigenous rodents, is discussed. The isolate was less virulent for rabbits and guinea pigs than was that which has been isolated previously from ticks, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), in Alaska, and was also less virulent for these animals than was strain SCHU S4. The isolate from the vole seemed to resemble most closely the Eurasian strain of P. tularensis, as might be expected on zoogeographical grounds. A distinguishing feature of the isolate was its ability to grow readily on blood agar in the absence of cystine. The relatively high rate of subclinical tularemia in man in northern and western Alaska, as indicated by the results of serological tests, may be attributable to this organism. Water-borne bacteria may be the source of infection in man.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1881.
In a general survey of the biology of Microtusabbreviatus on the St. Matthew Islands, Bering Sea, the helminth fauna was found to include only species regularly found in Microtus spp. at higher latitudes. Those recorded are listed with their rates of incidence and some information is given on their general biology.