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The feasibility of the interferon gamma release assay and predictors of discordance with the tuberculin skin test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in a remote aboriginal community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258079
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111986
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Gonzalo G Alvarez
Deborah D Van Dyk
Naomi Davies
Shawn D Aaron
D William Cameron
Marc Desjardins
Ranjeeta Mallick
Natan Obed
Maureen Baikie
Author Affiliation
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Divisions of Respirology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111986
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard test used to screen for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the northern Canadian territory of Nunavut. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are T cell blood-based assays to diagnose LTBI. The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is part of the routine immunization schedule in Nunavut. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, and predictors of discordance between the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the IGRA assay in a medically under-serviced remote arctic Aboriginal population.
Both the TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Qiagen group) IGRA tests were offered to people in their homes as part of a public health campaign aimed at high TB risk residential areas in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Feasibility was measured by the capacity of the staff to do the test successfully as measured by the proportion of results obtained.
In this population of predominantly young Inuit who were mostly BCG vaccinated, the use of IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI was feasible. IGRA testing resulted in more available test results reaching patients (95.6% vs 90.9% p?=?0.02) but took longer (median 8 days (IGRA) vs 2 days (TST), p value
PubMed ID
25386908 View in PubMed
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Predictors of indoor air concentrations in smoking and non-smoking residences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140052
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Aug;7(8):3080-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Marie-Eve Héroux
Nina Clark
Keith Van Ryswyk
Ranjeeta Mallick
Nicolas L Gilbert
Ian Harrison
Kathleen Rispler
Daniel Wang
Angelos Anastassopoulos
Mireille Guay
Morgan MacNeill
Amanda J Wheeler
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Marie-Eve.Heroux@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Aug;7(8):3080-99
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air pollution, indoor
Environmental Exposure
Housing
Humans
Questionnaires
Saskatchewan
Smoking
Time Factors
Abstract
Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone) were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71 homes participating in both seasons. In addition, data for relative humidity, temperature, air exchange rates, housing characteristics and occupants' activities during sampling were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct season-specific models for the air pollutants. Where smoking was a major contributor to indoor concentrations, separate models were constructed for all homes and for those homes with no cigarette smoke exposure. The housing characteristics and occupants' activities investigated in this study explained between 11% and 53% of the variability in indoor air pollutant concentrations, with ventilation, age of home and attached garage being important predictors for many pollutants.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20948949 View in PubMed
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Social determinants of health among residential areas with a high tuberculosis incidence in a remote Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297978
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019 Feb 06; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-06-2019
Author
Elaine Kilabuk
Franco Momoli
Ranjeeta Mallick
Deborah Van Dyk
Christopher Pease
Alice Zwerling
Sharon Edmunds Potvin
Gonzalo G Alvarez
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019 Feb 06; :
Date
Feb-06-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant health burden among Inuit in Canada. Social determinants of health (SDH) play a key role in TB infection, disease and ongoing transmission in this population. The objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of social determinants of Inuit health as they relate to latent TB infection (LTBI) among people living in residential areas at high risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut.
Inperson home surveys were conducted among those who lived in predetermined residential areas at high risk for TB identified in a door-to-door TB prevention campaign in Iqaluit, Nunavut in 2011. Risk ratios for SDH and LTBI were estimated, and multiple imputation was used to address missing data.
261 participants completed the questionnaire. Most participants identified as Inuit (82%). Unadjusted risk ratios demonstrated that age, education, smoking tobacco, crowded housing conditions and Inuit ethnicity were associated with LTBI. After adjusting for other SDH, multivariable analysis showed an association between LTBI with increasing age (relative risk, RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11), crowded housing (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.00) and ethnicity (RR 2.76, 95% CI 1.33 to 5.73) after imputing missing data.
Among high-risk residential areas for TB in a remote Arctic region of Canada, crowded housing and Inuit ethnicity were associated with LTBI after adjusting for other SDH. In addition to strong screening and treatment programmes, alleviating the chronic housing shortage will be a key element in the elimination of TB in the Canadian Inuit Nunangat.
PubMed ID
30728201 View in PubMed
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Taima (stop) TB: the impact of a multifaceted TB awareness and door-to-door campaign in residential areas of high risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268836
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100975
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Gonzalo G Alvarez
Deborah D VanDyk
Shawn D Aaron
D William Cameron
Naomi Davies
Natasha Stephen
Ranjeeta Mallick
Franco Momoli
Katherine Moreau
Natan Obed
Maureen Baikie
Geraldine Osborne
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100975
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antitubercular Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Education - methods
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Infant
Isoniazid - therapeutic use
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
National Health Programs
Nunavut - epidemiology
Population Groups - education
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Young Adult
Abstract
The incidence rate of active tuberculosis (TB) disease in the Canadian Territory of Nunavut has shown a rising trend over the past 10 years. In 2010 it was 60 times greater than the national incidence rate. The objective of the Taima (translates to "stop" in Inuktitut) TB study was to implement and evaluate a public health campaign to enhance existing TB prevention efforts in Nunavut.
A TB awareness campaign followed by a door-to-door screening campaign was carried out in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The aim of the campaign was to raise awareness about TB, and to provide in-home screening and treatment for people living in residential areas at high risk for TB. Screening was based on geographic location rather than on individual risk factors.
During the general awareness campaign an increase in the number of people who requested TB testing at the local public health clinic was observed. However, this increase was not sustained following cessation of the awareness campaign. Targeted TB screening in high risk residential areas in Iqaluit resulted in 224 individuals having TSTs read, and detection of 42 previously unidentified cases of latent TB, (overall yield of 18.8% or number needed to screen?=?5.3). These cases of latent TB infection (LTBI) were extra cases that had not been picked up by traditional screening practices (34% relative increase within the community). This resulted in a 33% relative increase in the completion of LTBI treatment within the community. The program directly and indirectly identified 5/17 new cases of active TB disease in Iqaluit during the study period (29.5% of all incident cases).
While contact tracing investigations remain a cornerstone of TB prevention, additional awareness, screening, and treatment programs like Taima TB may contribute to the successful control of TB in Aboriginal communities.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25033320 View in PubMed
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