The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age and leg length on the energy-expenditure predictions of five activity monitors. Participants (N=86, ages 8-40 years) performed three progressive bouts of treadmill activity ranging from 4 to 12 km/hr. Differences between measured energy expenditure (VO2) and activity-monitor-predicted energy expenditure were assessed across five leg length categories to determine the influence of leg length. Accelerometer counts or pedometer steps along with age, weight, and leg length accounted for 85-94% of measured energy expenditure. The addition of age and leg length as predictor variables explained a larger amount of variance in energy expenditure across all speeds. Differences in leg length and age might affect activity-monitor validity and, therefore, should be controlled for when estimating physical activity energy expenditure.
Inflammatory diseases of the aorta include routine atherosclerosis, aortitis, periaortitis, and atherosclerosis with excessive inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. The nomenclature and histologic features of these disorders are reviewed and discussed. In addition, diagnostic criteria are provided to distinguish between these disorders in surgical pathology specimens. An initial classification scheme is provided for aortitis and periaortitis based on the pattern of the inflammatory infiltrate: granulomatous/giant cell pattern, lymphoplasmacytic pattern, mixed inflammatory pattern, and the suppurative pattern. These inflammatory patterns are discussed in relation to specific systemic diseases including giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, ankylosing spondylitis, Cogan syndrome, Behçet's disease, relapsing polychondritis, syphilitic aortitis, and bacterial and fungal infections.
Consensus statement on surgical pathology of the aorta from the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association For European Cardiovascular Pathology: II. Noninflammatory degenerative diseases - nomenclature and diagnostic criteria.
Surgical aortic specimens are usually examined in Pathology Departments as a result of treatment of aneurysms or dissections. A number of diseases, genetic syndromes (Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, etc.), and vasculopathic aging processes involved in vascular injury can cause both distinct and nonspecific histopathologic changes with degeneration of the media as a common denominator. Terminology for these changes has varied over time leading to confusion and inconsistencies. This consensus document has established a revised, unified nomenclature for the variety of noninflammatory degenerative aortic histopathologies seen in such specimens. Older terms such as cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis are replaced by more technically accurate terms such as mucoid extracellular matrix accumulation (MEMA), elastic fiber fragmentation and/or loss, and smooth muscle cell nuclei loss. A straightforward system of grading is presented to gauge the extent of medial degeneration and synoptic reporting tables are provided. Herein we present a standardized nomenclature that is accessible to general pathologists and useful for future publications describing these entities.
In 2005, the Ontario Ministry of Education announced a policy requiring that all elementary students be provided with opportunities to participate in a minimum of 20 minutes of sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each school day during instructional time. To the authors' knowledge, this policy has never been formally evaluated. In a form of natural experiment with Project BEAT, we explored within 16 Toronto District School Board schools the proportion of children who participate in DPA, and the proportion who achieve sustained MVPA within these sessions; these are the objectives of this article.
Consent was given by 1027 parents/guardians for their children to participate (boys, n=478; girls, n=549). Physical activity (PA) was measured using accelerometry and classroom schedules collected to identify sessions of DPA. The frequency of DPA and number and duration of sustained bouts of MVPA (> or =5 min) were computed and explored relative to PA levels and health outcomes.
Fewer than half of the participating children were provided with DPA every day and not a single child engaged in sustained MVPA for > or =20 minutes. On the more positive side, children who engaged in DPA every day were significantly more active than their peers. Those accumulating at least 1 bout of MVPA were more active and likely to meet PA guidelines, and fewer of these children were overweight.
The majority of schools are not meeting the DPA policy. However, as the frequency and intensity of DPA increases, so do positive health outcomes. This paper provides supporting evidence that when this policy is implemented, the intended health benefits are achievable.
The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status.
Children's independent mobility (CIM) is critical to healthy development in childhood. The physical layout and social characteristics of neighbourhoods can impact opportunities for CIM. While global evidence is mounting on CIM, to the authors' knowledge, Canadian data on CIM and related health outcomes (i.e., physical activity (PA) behaviour) are missing. The purpose of this study was to examine if CIM is related to multiple characteristics of accelerometry-measured PA behaviour (total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, time spent sedentary) and whether associations between CIM and PA behaviour systematically vary by place of residence, stratifying by gender and type of day/period (weekdays, after-school, weekend).
Participants were recruited through Project BEAT (Built Environment and Active Transport; http://www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children (n?=?856) were stratified into four neighbourhood classifications based on the period of neighbourhood development (urban built environment (BE) (old BE) versus inner-suburban BE (new BE)) and socioeconomic status (SES; low SES and high SES). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT1M). CIM was assessed via parental report and two categories were created (low CIM, n?=?332; high CIM, n?=?524). A series of two-factor ANOVAs were used to determine gender-specific differences in PA for weekdays, weekend days and the after-school period, according to level of CIM, across four neighbourhood classifications.
Children who were granted at least some independent mobility (high CIM) had more positive PA profiles across the school week, during the after-school period, and over the weekend; they were also less sedentary. The influence of CIM on PA behaviour was particularly salient during the after-school period. Associations of CIM with PA varied by gender, and also by neighbourhood classification. CIM seemed to matter more in urban neighbourhoods for boys and suburban neighbourhoods for girls.
Our findings highlight the importance of independent mobility to multiple characteristics of children's PA behaviour across the week. Furthermore, they emphasize that independent mobility-activity relationships need to be considered by gender and the type of neighbourhood independent mobility is offered in. Future work will focus on developing a predictive model of CIM that could be used to inform decision-making around alleviating barriers to CIM.
Cites: Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2008 Oct;36(4):173-818815485
The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is the most comprehensive direct health measures survey ever conducted in Canada. Results show that the majority of children and youth (93%) do not meet current physical activity recommendations for health. CHMS data have not yet been considered alongside an independent sample of Canadian youth; such a Canadian-context examination could support CHMS results and contribute to discussions regarding accelerometry data reduction protocols.
From 2010 to 2011, valid accelerometry data were collected on 856 children living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Where possible, data presentation and analyses were aligned with the CHMS protocol such that physical activity outcomes could be compared.
Overall, trends were similar, with some deviations likely due to contextual and sampling differences and differences in data collection/reduction protocols regarding accelerometer model selection, wear time, activity intensity thresholds and epoch.
The similar trends support the notion that physical inactivity is an ongoing problem in communities across Canada.
Given evidence of weekday-weekend variability in children's sleep and associations with obesity there is rationale for exploring sleep in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity (PA) and examining whether weekday-weekend variations in sleep impact physical activity.
Children's (n=856) physical activity was measured using accelerometry (Toronto; 2010-2011). Sleep was assessed via parental report and collapsed into three categories (9h) compared to those engaging in weekend-catch-up-sleep.
While sleep is associated with obesity and activity in children, relationships vary by day. Recommended weekday-weekend sleep (regularity) supports healthy activity and should be an important health-promoting strategy. Future studies using longitudinal designs (to establish causality) are recommended.