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Carotenoids, alpha-tocopherols, and retinol in plasma and breast cancer risk in northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19594
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2001 Aug;12(6):529-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
K. Hultén
A L Van Kappel
A. Winkvist
R. Kaaks
G. Hallmans
P. Lenner
E. Riboli
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden. kerstin.hulten@epiph.umu.se
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2001 Aug;12(6):529-37
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Breast Neoplasms - blood - epidemiology - prevention & control
Carotenoids - blood
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Lutein - blood
Middle Aged
Postmenopause - blood
Premenopause - blood
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Vitamin A - blood
alpha-Tocopherol - blood
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Using a nested case-referent design we evaluated the relationship between plasma levels of six carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and retinol, sampled before diagnosis, and later breast cancer risk. METHODS: In total, 201 cases and 290 referents were selected from three population-based cohorts in northern Sweden, where all subjects donated blood samples at enrolment. All blood samples were stored at -80 degrees C. Cases and referents were matched for age, age of blood sample, and sampling centre. Breast cancer cases were identified through the regional and national cancer registries. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of carotenoids were positively intercorrelated. In analysis of three cohorts as a group none of the carotenoids was found to be significantly related to the risk of developing breast cancer. Similarly, no significant associations between breast cancer risk and plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol or retinol were found. However, in postmenopausal women from a mammography cohort with a high number of prevalent cases, lycopene was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. A significant trend of an inverse association between lutein and breast cancer risk was seen in premenopausal women from two combined population-based cohorts with only incident cases. A non-significant reduced risk with higher plasma alpha-carotene was apparent throughout all the sub-analyses. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, no significant associations were found between plasma levels of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol or retinol and breast cancer risk in analysis of three combined cohorts. However, results from stratified analysis by cohort membership and menopausal status suggest that lycopene and other plasma-carotenoids may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer and that menopausal status has an impact on the mechanisms involved.
PubMed ID
11519761 View in PubMed
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Cigar and pipe smoking and cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98017
Source
Int J Cancer. 2010 Feb 16;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-16-2010
Author
Va McCormack
A. Agudo
Cc Dahm
K. Overvad
A. Olsen
A. Tjonneland
R. Kaaks
H. Boeing
J. Manjer
M. Almquist
G. Hallmans
I. Johansson
Md Chirlaque
A. Barricarte
M. Dorronsoro
L. Rodriguez
Ml Redondo
Kt Khaw
N. Wareham
N. Allen
T. Key
E. Riboli
P. Boffetta
Author Affiliation
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2010 Feb 16;
Date
Feb-16-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The carcinogenicity of cigar and pipe smoking is established but the effect of detailed smoking characteristics is less well defined. We examined the effects on cancer incidence of exclusive cigar and pipe smoking, and in combination with cigarettes, among 102395 men from Denmark, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK in the EPIC cohort. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer during a median 9 year follow-up from ages 35-70 years were estimated using proportional hazards models. Compared to never smokers, HR of cancers of lung, upper aero-digestive tract and bladder combined was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.8) for exclusive cigar smokers (16 cases), 3.0 (2.1, 4.5) for exclusive pipe smokers (33 cases) and 5.3 (4.4, 6.4) for exclusive cigarette smokers (1069 cases). For each smoking type, effects were stronger in current than in ex-smokers, and in inhalers than in non-inhalers. Ever smokers of both cigarettes and cigars (HR 5.7 (4.4, 7.3), 120 cases) and cigarettes and pipes (5.1 (4.1, 6.4), 247 cases) had as high a raised risk as had exclusive cigarette smokers. In these smokers, the magnitude of the raised risk was smaller if they had switched to cigars or pipes only (i.e. quit cigarettes) and had not compensated with greater smoking intensity. Cigar and pipe smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The lower cancer risk of cigar and pipe smokers as compared to cigarette smokers is explained by lesser degree of inhalation and lower smoking intensity. (c) 2010 UICC.
PubMed ID
20162568 View in PubMed
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Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and benign prostatic hyperplasia--a prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74978
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2001 Apr;35(2):122-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
P. Stattin
R. Kaaks
E. Riboli
P. Ferrari
H. Dechaud
G. Hallmans
Author Affiliation
Department of Urology and Andrology, Umeå University Hospital, Sweden. par.stattin@urologi.umu.se
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2001 Apr;35(2):122-6
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I - analysis
Male
Middle Aged
Prostatic Hyperplasia - blood - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a strongly mitogenic and anti-apoptotic factor, in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The bioactivity of IGF-I within tissues depends on circulating levels, as well as on the local production of IGF-I and the presence of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). The IGFBPs regulate the efflux of IGF-I to the extravascular space and the bioavailability of IGF-I within tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, 60 cases of BPH defined by a history of prostate resection were identified, and two controls per case were selected. IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin were measured by immuno-radiometric assays in stored plasma samples drawn a mean of 3.2 years before surgery. RESULTS: The risk of BPH increased with increasing quartile levels of IGF-I adjusted for IGFBP-3 (p(trend) = 0.10) up to a relative risk of 2.16 (95% confidence interval 0.83-5.64) for the highest quartile. The risk decreased with increasing levels of IGFBP-1 (p(trend) = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that elevated IGF-I bioactivity may stimulate the development of BPH; however, they were not statistically significant and require confirmation from larger studies.
PubMed ID
11411654 View in PubMed
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Comparison of fatty acid profile in plasma phospholipids in women from Granada (southern Spain) and Malmö (southern Sweden).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19532
Source
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001 Jul;71(4):237-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2001
Author
V. Chajès
S. Elmståhl
C. Martinez-Garcia
A L Van Kappel
F. Bianchini
R. Kaaks
E. Riboli
Author Affiliation
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon, France.
Source
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001 Jul;71(4):237-42
Date
Jul-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Meat
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Phospholipids - blood - chemistry
Pilot Projects
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seafood
Spain
Sweden
Abstract
We conducted a first pilot study on healthy women living in two countries with different dietary habits, Granada in the south of Spain and Malmö in the south of Sweden, in order to compare their levels of plasma phospholipid fatty acids, and to examine the relationship between the differences in food consumption. This study is part of a pilot study which is nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study on diet, plasma concentrations of antioxidants and fatty acids, and markers of oxidative stress. Thirty-nine women in Granada and thirty-eight women in Malmö, aged 45-50 years (all pre-menopausal) were selected among the female participants in the cohorts from these two countries. Individual measurements of the women's habitual diet were obtained by a food frequency questionnaire. 24-hour diet recalls were used for the standardised measurement of diet at group level. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography. We found a different fatty acid profile in plasma between the two populations, with higher mean levels of palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1) (n-7), oleic acid (18:1), alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) (n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) (n-3), and lower mean levels of stearic acid (18:0) in Malmö compared to Granada. Women in Malmö consumed more meat, alcoholic beverages and sugar, and less fish and shellfish than women in Granada. We conclude that the fatty acid composition in plasma phospholipids is different between women from the two European centres. For polyunsaturated fatty acids, differences were observed for (n-3) fatty acids. In relation to these differences, we observed that specific food intakes, particularly meat and fish, varied between the two centres.
PubMed ID
11582859 View in PubMed
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Fatty-acid composition in serum phospholipids and risk of breast cancer: an incident case-control study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20782
Source
Int J Cancer. 1999 Nov 26;83(5):585-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-26-1999
Author
V. Chajès
K. Hultén
A L Van Kappel
A. Winkvist
R. Kaaks
G. Hallmans
P. Lenner
E. Riboli
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs, E.A. 2103, Unité de Recherche Associée Université-INRA, Faculté de Médecine, Tours, France.
Source
Int J Cancer. 1999 Nov 26;83(5):585-90
Date
Nov-26-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - blood - chemistry - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - analysis - blood
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Palmitic Acid - analysis - blood
Phospholipids - blood - chemistry
Prospective Studies
Risk
Stearic Acids - analysis - blood
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The study of the relationship between dietary intake of fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer has not yielded definite conclusions with respect to causality, possibly because of methodological issues inherent to nutritional epidemiology. To evaluate the hypothesis of possible protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against breast cancer in women, we examined the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in pre-diagnostic sera of 196 women who developed breast cancer, and of 388 controls matched for age at recruitment and duration of follow-up, in a prospective cohort study in Umeâ, northern Sweden. Individual fatty acids were measured as a percentage of total fatty acids, using capillary gas chromatography. Conditional logistic-regression models showed no significant association between n-3 PUFA and breast-cancer risk. In contrast, women in the highest quartile of stearic acid had a relative risk of 0.49 (95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.08) compared with women in the lowest quartile (trend p = 0.047), suggesting a protective role of stearic acid in breast-cancer risk. Besides stearic acid, women in the highest quartile of the 18:0/18:1 n-9c ratio had a relative risk of 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.10) compared with women in the lowest quartile (trend p = 0.064), suggesting a decrease in breast-cancer risk in women with low activity of the enzyme delta 9-desaturase (stearoyl CoA desaturase), which may reflect an underlying metabolic profile characterized by insulin resistance and chronic hyper-insulinemia.
PubMed ID
10521790 View in PubMed
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Fatty acid composition in serum phospholipids and risk of breast cancer: a prospective cohort study in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20930
Source
Lipids. 1999;34 Suppl:S113
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999

Interrelationships between plasma testosterone, SHBG, IGF-I, insulin and leptin in prostate cancer cases and controls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18290
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Aug;12(4):309-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
R. Kaaks
A. Lukanova
S. Rinaldi
C. Biessy
S. Söderberg
T. Olsson
U-H Stenman
E. Riboli
G. Hallmans
P. Stattin
Author Affiliation
Hormones and Cancer Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150, Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon, Cedex 08, France. kaaks@iarc.fr
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2003 Aug;12(4):309-15
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Comparative Study
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I - analysis
Leptin - blood
Male
Prospective Studies
Prostatic Neoplasms - blood - chemistry
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin - analysis
Sweden
Testosterone - blood
Abstract
Despite strong indirect evidence that androgens stimulate prostate cancer development, data from most analytical studies on this association have been negative. To further investigate this issue, we studied the interrelationships between androgenicity and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and leptin. Within a prospective cohort study, we measured testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, insulin and leptin, in plasma from 149 cases and 298 controls. Testosterone correlated positively with SHBG, whereas testosterone and SHBG correlated inversely with IGF-I, IGFBP-3, insulin, leptin and body mass index (BMI). Indices of free testosterone showed an inverse linear correlation with leptin (P
PubMed ID
12883384 View in PubMed
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Inverse correlation between alcohol consumption and lymphocyte levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10220
Source
Carcinogenesis. 2001 Jun;22(6):885-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
F. Bianchini
A. Jaeckel
P. Vineis
C. Martinez-Garciá
S. Elmstahl
A L van Kappel
H. Boeing
H. Ohshima
E. Riboli
R. Kaaks
Author Affiliation
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon, Cedex 08, France.
Source
Carcinogenesis. 2001 Jun;22(6):885-90
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
DNA - blood
DNA Damage
Deoxyguanosine - analogs & derivatives - blood
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Lymphocytes - metabolism
Middle Aged
Oxidation-Reduction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
In a cross-sectional study of 115 premenopausal non-smoking women, we examined the relationship between lymphocyte levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and habitual alcohol consumption. The study was conducted in four different regions of Europe, including Potsdam (Germany), Turin (Italy), Malmö (Sweden) and Granada (Spain). Mean 8-oxodGuo levels differed significantly across study centres (P = 0.001), with the highest levels in Granada [2.17 8-oxodGuox10(-6) 2'-deoxyguanosine (95% confidence interval 1.27-4.40)] and lowest levels in Turin [1.19 (0.36-4.29)]. Mean levels of total alcohol intake and of types of alcoholic beverages consumed (wine, fortified wines, beer and cider) also differed across the study centres (P
PubMed ID
11375894 View in PubMed
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Leptin is associated with increased prostate cancer risk: a nested case-referent study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19969
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1341-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
P. Stattin
S. Söderberg
G. Hallmans
A. Bylund
R. Kaaks
U H Stenman
A. Bergh
T. Olsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Urology, Umeå University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1341-5
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Carrier Proteins - analysis
Epithelium - chemistry
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 - blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 - blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 - blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I - analysis
Leptin - analysis
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia - blood - chemistry - pathology
Prostatic Neoplasms - blood - chemistry - pathology
Receptors, Cell Surface
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin - analysis
Smoking
Sweden
Testosterone - blood
Abstract
A Western lifestyle has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. However, no clear association between obesity and prostate cancer has been shown. Leptin may stimulate prostate growth and angiogenesis, and receptors for leptin are present in the prostate. Leptin may, thus, be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. One hundred forty-nine men with prostate cancer were identified (together with 298 matched referents) who, before diagnosis, had participated in population-based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Blood pressure, body mass index, and use of tobacco were recorded. Leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I-binding proteins 1-3, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed in stored samples. Their influences on prostate cancer were estimated by conditional logistic regression analysis. Prostate cancer specimens were investigated for immunoreactivity for the leptin receptor. Relative risk (95% confidence intervals) estimates of prostate cancer over the quintiles of leptin were 1.0, 2.1 (1.1-4.1), 2.6 (1.4-4.8), 1.4 (0.7-2.7), and 1.6 (0.8-3.2). Adjustments for metabolic variables, testosterone, and IGF-I and its binding proteins did not attenuate this increased risk. Immunoreactivity for the leptin receptor was detected in normal, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and malignant prostatic epithelium. Moderately elevated plasma leptin concentrations are associated with later development of prostate cancer. This may be due to direct effects of leptin on prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions, or to indirect actions through other mechanisms. A critical fat mass related to an interior milieu favorable for prostate cancer development seems to exist, because intermediate but not high leptin levels are related to prostate cancer risk.
PubMed ID
11238530 View in PubMed
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Occurrence, trends and environment etiology of pancreatic cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10832
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998 Jun;24(3):165-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1998
Author
E. Weiderpass
T. Partanen
R. Kaaks
H. Vainio
M. Porta
T. Kauppinen
A. Ojajärvi
P. Boffetta
N. Malats
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Elisabete.Weiderpass@MEP.KI.SE
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998 Jun;24(3):165-74
Date
Jun-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Pancreatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
This review summarizes data on the occurrence, the trends, and the life-style, environmental, occupational and genetic determinants of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiologic evidence implicates tobacco smoking as one cause. The evidence regarding alcohol consumption is inconsistent. Although both positive and inconclusive findings are encountered, the bulk of the evidence on coffee consumption is negative. Fat intake is linked with obesity and diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Fruit and vegetable consumption appears to be protective. No occupational or environmental agent has been confirmed to increase the risk, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent, Little is known about the role of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes in pancreas carcinogenesis. Pancreatic cancer shows high rates of mutations of Ki-ras and losses or mutations of tumor suppressor genes (p53, p16INK4A, and SMAD4/DPC-4). Ki-ras mutations have been associated with life-style factors in relation to pancreatic cancer, but the evidence is still scant and inconsistent.
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998 Jun;24(3):161-49710367
PubMed ID
9710368 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.