A nation-wide campaign aimed at preventing accidents in the home is being implemented in Norway. 95% of the municipalities acknowledge having received information material from the campaign, 33% report having established accident prevention committees, and 26% report having introduced preventive measures as a result of this national campaign. The study indicates that accidents are not recognized as yet as a major health problem in many municipalities. Identification of accidents as a health problem seems to be an important factor in the preventive efforts. To enhance further accident prevention efforts it seems important to increase awareness of accident as a health problem, and to increase the involvement of key personnel within the community.
In a population-based study of 41 children with bacterial endocarditis (BE), diagnosed in the period 1970 through 1989 in eastern Denmark, we analyzed trends in the diagnosis of BE and in mortality, and searched for possible prognostic factors. During this period the delay in diagnosis from first symptom to treatment did not change, but the delay from admission to treatment was significantly prolonged from 0 to 3 days, despite the introduction of echocardiography (ECHO). There was a significant improvement in the prognosis, the mortality rate having decreased from 40 to 0% [95% confidence limits: 12-74 vs. 0-26 (0.01 less than p less than 0.02)]. The improved prognosis was not explained by changes in the etiology or pattern of antibiotic resistance and may reflect a milder course of BE in children. Children with "mild anomalies"--such as bicuspid aortic valve (n = 5), coarctation of the aorta (n = 2), and prolapse of the mitral valve (n = 2)--had a significantly poorer prognosis than children with other forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) (p = 0.004), a reminder of the importance of suspecting BE in all children with unexplained long-lasting or intermittent fever, because some may have unrecognized "mild" CHD.
The modified version of the patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS) is a tool designed to assess cancer patients' perceptions of patient-health care provider pain communication process. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the shortened Danish version of the M-PICS (SDM-PICS).
The validated English version of the M-PICS was translated into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients were recruited for the study from specialized pain management facilities.
Thirty-three patients responded to the SDM-PICS, Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory Pain Severity Scale. A factor analysis of the SDM-PICS resulted in two factors: Factor one, patient information, consisted of four items assessing the extent to which the patient shared information with his/her health care provider, and Factor two, health care provider information, consisted of four items measuring the degree to which a health care provider was perceived as the one who shares information. Two separate items addressed the perceived level of information exchange between the patient and the health care provider. The SDM-PICS total had an internal consistency of 0.88. The SDM-PICS scores were positively related to pain relief and inversely related to the measures of cognitive pain management barriers, anxiety, and reported pain levels.
The SDM-PICS seems to be a reliable and valid measure of perceived patient-health care provider communication in the context of cancer pain.
BACKGROUND: Studies on soy supplementation suggest a cardioprotective potential. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol and arterial function as a result of dietary enrichment with soy supplementation. DESIGN: A Randomized, double blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, and Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In all, 100 hypercholesterolaemic but otherwise healthy subjects were included in the study of which 89 completed it. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF-alpha, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), serum insulin, serum glucose, blood pressure as well as Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and plasma lipids to a fat-rich meal were recorded before and after the intervention. In a sub study in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial increase in GIP to the meal test was observed in the soy group (P
Analysis of associations between testicular cancer, subfertility and offspring sex ratio (proportion of males born among newborns) was performed on 3530 Danish men, born 1945-1980, who developed testicular cancer in the period 1960-1993. As the basis of comparison we used the total population of Danish men born in the period 1945-1980 (n = 1 488 957) and their biological children (n = 1 250 989). Men who developed testicular cancer had, prior to the cancer diagnosis, a reduced fertility (standardized fertility rate ratio: 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.97) and a significantly lower proportion of boys (48.9%, P: = 0.02) compared with the general population (51.3%). The reduction in fertility was more pronounced in men with non-seminoma but the reduction in offspring sex ratio was independent of histological type. This confirms earlier results from less conclusive studies and indicates that testicular cancer, male subfertility and a female-biased sex ratio among new-born infants are characteristics of male reproduction that are linked by biological mechanisms.
Analysis of the effect of sex combination of previously born children in the family on fertility rates was performed for 363,373 Danish families comprising a total of 613,900 children, to address the questions of sex preference and combination preference. The fertility rates were stratified by parental age, period and latency time to the next child, and fertility rate ratios were estimated using multiplicative Poisson regression models. Our results demonstrate a strong preference for a balanced composition of sexes in Danish families. In families with two or three children the highest fertility rates were seen in families who had same-sexed children. The lowest fertility rates were in families with two children of identical sex followed by a child of the opposite sex. A moderate sex preference for girls was indicated by higher fertility rates in two-boy families than in two-girl families.
The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births. The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960. The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women showed that the proportion remaining childless throughout life has been lower than in men and has not shown a similar increase. In conclusion, using unique Danish registries the study showed a birth cohort related decline in fertility rates and an increase in childlessness among men. In the more recent cohorts more than one in five men remained childless. The causes behind the findings are likely multi-factorial. Hitherto, most attention has been given to socio-economic factors which undoubtedly play a major role. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the high prevalence of low sperm counts among young Danish men may be a contributing factor.
During the period 1.9.1985-21.2.1988, 143 patients commenced and completed treatment with in vitro fertilization and embryo-transfer (IVF-ET) in Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. Forty-four out of the 143 patients were delivered of a total of 55 infants. There were 35 single deliveries, seven twin deliveries and two triplet deliveries. Seven women were admitted with threatened abortion and three women developed preeclampsia, one of these was severe. On an average, the deliveries occurred in the 38th week of pregnancy and the average weight of the singletons was 3,020 g. Ten women were delivered preterm and seven of the singletons had birth weights under 2,500 g. The frequency of caesarean section was 34% for singleton deliveries and 43% for all of the deliveries. Thirty-one boys and 24 girls were delivered, all of whom had normal karyotypes. One infant had a cleft lip but no other malformations. Three premature infants required brief respirator treatment. All of the infants were thriving on discharge. This material is still too limited to permit drawing of definite conclusions but it suggests, however, just as in other IVT-ET investigations, that the infants are born slightly earlier and weigh slightly less than average neonates, but that they are otherwise normal. In order to illustrate these problems further, the authors have commenced a more extensive prospective investigation with matched control persons.
OBJECTIVE: In the last years, major changes as regards timing for operation, surgical technique, and perioperative care determined a great improvement in the arterial switch operation (ASO) allowing excellent mid-term results in a few leading centers. This stimulated the widespread adoption of ASO as procedure of choice for transposition of the great arteries (TGA), even in small institutions. We reviewed our early experience with ASO in an attempt to evaluate its safety in a small center. METHODS: Since April 1992, 39 consecutive patients underwent TGA repair by ASO in our department. There were 27 patients with simple TGA, 8 with TGA and VSD and 4 with Taussig-Bing heart and aortic coarctation. Median age and weight at operation were 7 days and 3.5 kg, respectively. Neonatal repair was performed in 34 patients. In accordance with the Planché coronary classification, type I was encountered in 21 patients, type II in 4 and type III in 14. Several modifications of the original technique were used, mainly regarding coronary relocation, pulmonary artery reconstruction and approaches for associated VSD closure and aortic arch repair. RESULTS: Early mortality was 2.6% (n = 1), the only operative death being related to unsatisfactory coronary relocation. Since modified ultrafiltration was adopted, mean ICU stay decreased from 5 +/- 4 days (n = 21) to 2 +/- 1 days (n = 17) (P
The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of Kawasaki's disease and to describe the clinical manifestations and the prognosis of the disease in children in Denmark during the period 1981-1990. In a register of all hospital admissions in Denmark, 99 patients were registered as having Kawasaki's disease. Of those, 89 patients fulfilled the clinical diagnostic criteria. The mean incidence of the ten year period was 1.0 per 100,000 children per year. The incidence of the disease decreased in the age group from zero to seven years after which it was rarely observed. Typical laboratory findings were hypersedimentation, leucocytosis and thrombocytosis. Eight children had cardiomegaly and three had electrocardiographic changes. Echocardiography was performed in 66 patients showing coronary artery aneurysms in nine patients (14%) (six boys and three girls). No further cardiac complications were found.