A questionnaire study was carried out in 6000 randomly selected women in the County of Jämtland in Sweden. The response rate was 61.2%. Questions were asked about general health, height and body weight, sleep, menstruation and menopausal complaints. There were also questions about visits to doctors and the use of sleeping pills and hormone preparations. A deterioration of the night's sleep after the age of 60 years was associated especially with a low body mass index (BMI). In the subgroup with a BMI below 20 (kg m-2), frequent awakenings were reported 4 times more often in women 60-64 years old than in those aged 40-44 years. No such difference was found with a BMI > or = 30. In the age group 60-64 years twice as many women with BMI > or = 30 as women with BMI or = 30kg m-2.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate daytime sleepiness and napping in relation to age, health and nocturnal sleep. DESIGN: An epidemiological survey by means of a questionnaire. SETTING: The counties of Västerbotten and Norrbotten in northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: All 10,216 members of the pensioners' association SPF. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daytime sleep, daytime sleepiness, health, night sleep, somatic diseases and medication. RESULTS: Daytime sleepiness was 4.9 (3.7-6.4) and 5.1 (4.2-6.1) times more common in men and women, respectively, in poor health than in those in good health. It was also more common in subjects suffering from cardiac diseases, diabetes and musculo-skeletal diseases, urological symptoms, and diseases with sensory and neurological impairments, compared with symptomless subjects. Stepwise regression analysis showed an increase in daytime sleepiness in men in association with impaired general health (r2 = 0.067), frequent awakenings (r2 = 0.098), higher age (r2 = 0.109) and difficulty in falling asleep again after nocturnal awakening (r2 = 0.115), and in the women, in association with impaired health (r2 = 0.118), difficulty in falling asleep again (r2 = 0.149), frequent awakenings (r2 = 0.160) and higher age (r2 = 0.171). There was no further increase in r2 = either for men or women in relation to use of hypnotics. CONCLUSION: Age, poor health and different somatic diseases, but not hypnotics, are associated with daytime sleepiness in elderly persons.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate daytime sleepiness and napping in relation to nocturnal sleep, health, and medication. DESIGN: An epidemiological survey using a questionnaire. SETTING: The county of Jämtland in northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: 3669 randomly selected women aged 40-64 years, with a similar number of women in each 5-year age group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daytime sleepiness (DS), health, night sleep, somatic diseases, and medication. RESULTS: DS was more common in subjects suffering from asthma, cardiac diseases, hypertension, muscular pain, and frequent nocturnal micturition. In a logistic regression analysis with DS as the dependent variable and age, health, nocturnal sleep, frequent awakenings, inability to fall asleep again after nocturnal awakening, and hypnotic medication as explanatory variables there was an increase in DS by age in each 5-year class from 40-44 years, but a decrease in DS beyond 60 years. General health, health development during the last 5 years, and sleep characteristics were associated with increased DS. There was no increase in DS related to the use of hypnotics. CONCLUSIONS: Poor health, a poor night's sleep, and different somatic diseases, but not use of hypnotics, are associated with DS in women aged 40-64.
A questionnaire study was carried out among pensioners in Jämtland County, Sweden. The questionnaire was answered by 1,115 persons, representing a response rate of 74%. It covered various aspects of health, with emphasis on sleep, fatigue, thirst, and other symptoms that may interfere with night-time sleep. The data were analysed with regard to the stated number of night-time disturbances due to urination. Nocturnal micturition was often associated with increased sleep disorders, a poorer quality of sleep, increased thirst, particularly at night, and increased fatigue in the daytime. All the relationships were clearer in women than in men. There was no relationship between reported enuresis in childhood and an increased frequency of voiding when the subject became older.
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between nocturnal micturition and mortality in an elderly population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All 10 216 members of the Swedish pensioners' association (SPF) in two Swedish counties were asked to participate in a questionnaire survey. The questions concerned the general state of health, occurrence of somatic diseases and symptoms, number of voiding episodes per night, everyday habits and behaviour, and the use of drugs. After 6 years, data on deaths were extracted from the National Register of Deaths at the National Central Bureau of Statistics in Stockholm. RESULTS: There were 6143 evaluable questionnaires, of which 39.5% were from men. The mean (sd) ages of the men and women participating were 73.0 (6.0) and 72.6 (6.7) years, respectively. During a 54-month period after the questionnaire was completed, 444 of the men and 384 of the women died. The men with three or more nocturnal voiding episodes had a higher death rate, at 1.9 (1.4-2.6) times more than the whole group of men (3.4% vs 1.9% per 6 months; P/=80 years vs
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between nightmares, some cardiac symptoms and the menopause in 40-64-year-old women. METHODS: A general health questionnaire study was carried out in 3669 randomly selected women (out of 6000 invited) in the County of Jämtland, Sweden. Questions were asked about the state of health, cardiac symptoms (irregular heart beat and spasmodic chest pain), sleep, nightmares, menstrual status and medication. RESULTS: Eighty-one per cent of the women reported a good night's sleep. Nightmares at least once weekly occurred in 10.4%. The prevalence of spasmodic chest pain and irregular heart beat increased with increasing number of nights a week disturbed by nightmares. The prevalence of spasmodic chest pain and irregular heart beat was increased after the menopause. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, independent correlates for spasmodic chest pain were: nightmares at least once a week versus more seldom or never (odds ratio (OR) 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.5), sleep, poor versus good (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.3) and postmenopausal state (OR 6.6; 95% CI 2.8-15.4). Independent correlates for irregular heart beat were: nightmares (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and poor sleep (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.9-3.2), but not menopause. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of perceived spasmodic chest pain and of irregular heart beat is increased in 40-64-year-old women with frequent nightmares and poor sleep. The occurrence of spasmodic chest pain is further increased after the menopause.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible relationship between major depression (MD) and nocturia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An unselected group of adult men and women, living in the city of Ostersund, Sweden, were sent a postal questionnaire containing questions on somatic and mental health, sleep, sleepiness and nocturia. For depression diagnostics the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used. RESULTS: The mean (sd) ages of the men and women were 48.0 (18.2) and 50.1 (19.1) years, respectively. Two or more nocturnal micturition episodes occurred in 15.6% of the men and 16.5% of the women. In a multiple logistic regression analysis independent correlates (with 95% confidence intervals) for >/= 2 nocturnal voids in men were: MD 6.5 (2.6-15.6); health, fair vs good, 1.8 (1.0-3.9); health, poor vs good, 2.7 (1.1-4.8); age, 60-74 vs 18-29, 3.6 (1.5-8.4) and age >/= 75 vs 18-29 6.7 (2.6-17.4); and in women: MD 2.8 (1.3-6.3); health, fair vs good, 1.9 (1.1-3.2); health, poor vs good, 4.3 (2.6-8.2); age, 60-74 vs 18-29, 3.8 (1.8-7.8), and age >/= 75 vs 18-29, 8.6 (4.0-18.6). Age
To analyse the relationship between nocturnal micturition and health in 40- to 64-year-old women. A questionnaire study was carried out in 3669 randomly selected women (out of 6000 invited) in the County of Jämtland, Sweden. Questions were asked about the general health status of health, health development during the last 5 years, nocturnal micturition, parity, menstrual status, menopausal symptoms, hormone replacement therapy, cardiac diseases, diabetes and snoring. Poor health was reported by 10.4%. In 24.1% of the women health development had been unfavourable in the last 5 years. Poor health was reported by 4.7% of women without nocturnal micturition, and by 11.2, 20.1 and 39.0% (P or =6 days/month versus or =10 years after versus before the menopause (OR 2.2; CI 1.3-3.7), diuretic treatment (OR 2.8; CI 1.7-4.6). The perceived state of health in 40- to 64- year-old women is profoundly affected by nocturia, independently of heart diseases, diabetes, snoring, age and menopausal status.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between BMS and nocturnal micturition in a group of elderly men and women. The study comprised 6103 elderly men and women recruited from a group of pensioners by means of a questionnaire (n=10,216; response rate 61.3%). The mean (+/-S.D.) ages of the men and women were 73.0+/-6.0 years and 72.6+/-6.7 years, respectively. The questionnaire included questions on their health, diseases and symptoms, drugs, sleep habits and the number of nocturnal voiding episodes. BMS was reported by 2.4% of the men and 8.5% of the women (p
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship of nocturnal micturition to body mass index (BMI), smoking, regular exercise, coffee and tea drinking, parity, and menopausal transition in women. METHODS: A questionnaire study was carried out in 3669 respondents among 6000 women, i.e. 1200 randomly selected from each 5-year age group between 40 and 64 years in the County of Jämtland, Sweden. The questions concerned number of nocturnal voiding episodes, health, childbirths, occurrence of somatic diseases and symptoms, habits and medication. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, body mass index (BMI) > or =30, smoking, lack of regular exercise and menopausal status, but not parity, were associated with an increased number of nocturnal micturition episodes. Nocturia was twice as common in women who drank no evening coffee or tea as in those who drank either of these beverages. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, independent correlates for two or more nocturnal micturition episodes vs. no more than one episode were: smoking 1-15 cigarettes daily vs. no smoking (odds ratio (OR), 1.4; confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.8), 16 or more cigarettes per day vs. no smoking (OR, 1.8; CI, 1.1-2.8), or =10 years after vs. before (OR, 3.5; CI, 2.6-4.7), BMI > or =30 vs.