Data on the association between acute infections and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are sparse. We examined whether various hospital-diagnosed infections or infections treated in the community increase the risk of VTE.
We conducted this population-based case-control study in Northern Denmark (population 1.8 million) using medical databases. We identified all patients with a first hospital-diagnosed VTE during the period 1999-2009 (n = 15 009). For each case, we selected 10 controls from the general population matched for age, gender and county of residence (n = 150 074). We identified all hospital-diagnosed infections and community prescriptions for antibiotics 1 year predating VTE. We used odds ratios from a conditional logistic regression model to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of VTE within different time intervals of the first year after infection, controlling for confounding.
Respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, intra-abdominal and bacteraemic infections diagnosed in hospital or treated in the community were associated with a greater than equal to twofold increased VTE risk. The association was strongest within the first 2 weeks after infection onset, gradually declining thereafter. Compared with individuals without infection during the year before VTE, the IRR for VTE within the first 3 months after infection was 12.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.3-13.9) for patients with hospital-diagnosed infection and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.8-4.1) for patients treated with antibiotics in the community. Adjustment for VTE risk factors reduced these IRRs to 3.3 (95% CI: 2.9-3.8) and 2.6 (95% CI: 2.5-2.8), respectively. Similar associations were found for unprovoked VTE and for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism individually.
Infections are a risk factor for VTE.
Cites: World J Surg. 2005;29 Suppl 1:S30-415818472
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;40(3):819-2721324940
The dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and pneumonia risk in healthy individuals is poorly understood. We examined 22,485 males and 24,682 females from Denmark who were aged 50-64 yrs. Subjects were without major chronic diseases at baseline and had median 12 yrs follow-up for first-time hospitalisation with pneumonia. 1,091 (males) and 944 (females) had a pneumonia-related hospitalisation. Among males, the risk of pneumonia was increased for alcohol abstainers and those who drank large weekly amounts: Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 0, 7-20, 21-34, 35-50, and >50 drinks per week were 1.49 (95% CI 1.00-2.21), 0.88 (0.76-1.03), 0.87 (0.72-1.05), 1.15 (0.93-1.44), and 1.81 (1.40-2.33), respectively, compared with 1-6 drinks per week. The association between high alcohol intake and pneumonia persisted after controlling for subsequent chronic diseases. Among females, HRs for 0, 7-20, 21-35, and >35 drinks weekly were 1.26 (0.89-1.79), 1.01 (0.88-1.17), 1.10 (0.88-1.37), and 0.54 (0.29-1.01), respectively. For the same moderate to high weekly alcohol amount, infrequent intake yielded higher pneumonia HRs than more regular intake in both sexes. Regular moderate alcohol intake is not associated with increased risk of hospitalisation for pneumonia. High weekly alcohol consumption in males and infrequent heavy drinking in both sexes may increase pneumonia risk.
We examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) level at time of blood culture (BC) draw and mortality following bacteraemia. Our population-based cohort study comprised all first-time monomicrobial bacteraemia episodes in adults in a Danish county during 1996-2004 (n = 5267). CRP was measured within 24 h of the first positive BC draw. Cox regression was used to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs) associated with CRP level quartiles (10-64 (reference), 65-143, 144-240 and 241-688 mg/L), controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, specialty, acquisition of infection, and infection focus. We also looked for a biological interaction between CRP level and high magnitude of bacteraemia (three of three culture bottles positive). Thirty-day mortality increased with higher CRP level: adjusted 0-30-day MRRs for patients in the second, third and fourth CRP quartiles were 1.38 (95% CI 1.13-1.69), 1.70 (95% CI 1.40-2.06), and 2.38 (95% CI 1.96-2.87), respectively (p for trend
To examine real-life time trends in early glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes between 2000 and 2012.
We used population-based medical databases to ascertain the association between achievement of glycaemic control with initial glucose-lowering treatment in patients with incident type 2 diabetes in Northern Denmark. Success in reaching glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) goals within 3-6?months was examined using regression analysis.
Of 38?418 patients, 91% started with oral glucose-lowering drugs in monotherapy. Metformin initiation increased from 32% in 2000-2003 to 90% of all patients in 2010-2012. Pretreatment (interquartile range) HbA1c levels decreased from 8.9 (7.6-10.7)% in 2000-2003 to 7.0 (6.5-8.1)% in 2010-2012. More patients achieved an HbA1c target of
Severe bacterial infections may have a prolonged negative effect on subsequent functional status and health-related quality of life. We studied hospitalized patients for changes in functional status and quality of life within 1 year of community-acquired bacteraemia in comparison to blood-culture-negative controls. In a prospectively conducted matched cohort study at Aalborg University Hospital, north Denmark, during 2011-2014, we included 71 medical inpatients with first-time community-acquired bacteraemia. For each bacteraemia patient, we matched one blood-culture-negative inpatient control on age and gender. Functional status and quality of life before and after hospitalization were assessed by Barthel-20 and EuroQol-5D questionnaires. We computed the 3-month and 1-year risk for any deterioration in Barthel-20 score and EuroQol-5D index score, and for a deterioration of =10 points in EuroQol-5D visual analogue scale score, and used regression analyses to assess adjusted risk ratios (RR) with 95% CIs. Compared with controls, bacteraemia was associated with an increased 3-month risk for deterioration in functional status as assessed by Barthel-20 score (14% versus 3% with deterioration, adjusted RR 5.1; 95% CI 1.2-22.3). The difference was less after 1 year (11% versus 7% with deterioration, adjusted RR 1.6; 95% CI 0.5-4.5). After 3 months, quality of life had become worse in 37% of bacteraemia patients and 28% of controls by EuroQol-5D index score (adjusted RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.1), with similar findings after 1 year and by visual analogue scale. In conclusion, community-acquired bacteraemia is associated with increased risk for subsequent deterioration in functional status compared with blood-culture-negative controls, and with a high risk for deterioration in quality of life.
Female gender has been suggested to be associated with poor outcome in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB), but existing data remain sparse and conflicting. We investigated clinical outcomes in female and male patients with community-acquired (CA-) SAB.
Population-based medical registers were used to conduct a cohort study of all adult patients with CA-SAB in northern Denmark, 2000-2011. Thirty-day mortality after CA-SAB for female and male patients was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we computed hazard ratios (HRs) of death according to gender, overall and stratified by age groups, co-morbidity level, and selected major diseases while adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, we estimated 30-day prevalence proportions for SAB-associated infective endocarditis and osteomyelitis by gender.
Among 2638 patients with CA-SAB, 1022 (39%) were female. Thirty-day mortality was 29% (n = 297) in female patients and 22% (n = 355) in male patients, yielding an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.11-1.53). This association appeared robust across age groups, whereas no consistent pattern was observed according to co-morbidity level. Compared with male patients, the prognostic impact of gender was most pronounced among female patients with diabetes (aHR 1.52; 95% CI 1.04-2.21)), and among female patients with cancer (aHR 1.40; 95% CI 1.04-1.90). The 30-day prevalence of infective endocarditis or osteomyelitis did not differ according to gender.
Female patients with CA-SAB experienced increased 30-day mortality compared with male patients. Gender should be considered in the triage and risk stratification of CA-SAB patients.
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and prognosis of nontyphoid Salmonella bacteraemia in a well-defined population in which complete follow-up investigations had been performed. All patients with nontyphoid Salmonella bacteraemia from 1994 through 2003 in North Jutland County, Denmark, were eligible for the study. Annual incidence rates were calculated for 10-year age groups. The North Jutland County Bacteraemia Database (inclusion of subjects), medical hospital records, the Prescription Registry (redemption of prescription drugs), and the Central Population Registry (deaths) were used as data sources. The outcomes were mortality within 30 and 180 days of the first nontyphoid-Salmonella-positive blood sample. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was performed, first with age and comorbidity as evidenced by Charlson index scores, and second with selected clinical and laboratory prognostic variables potentially related to nontyphoid Salmonella bacteraemia per se. A total of 111 non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia patients were included in the study. The incidence rate (mean 2.3/100,000 person-years) increased steadily from 1.9/100,000 person-years in the 40-49-year age group to 14.6/100,000 person-years in those >90 years. Twelve (11%) and 24 (22%) patients died within 30 and 180 days, respectively. Cox regression analyses showed that increasing age and, to a higher degree, increasing levels of comorbidity were independently associated with an unfavourable outcome, whereas none of the clinical or laboratory variables studied were strong independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, the presence of comorbid diseases and old age were independently associated with mortality, whereas clinical and laboratory variables were less important.
Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) remain substantial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal and multidisciplinary perioperative care protocol on mortality in patients with PPU.
This was an externally controlled multicentre trial set in seven gastrointestinal departments in Denmark. Consecutive patients who underwent surgery for gastric or duodenal PPU between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009 were treated according to a multimodal and multidisciplinary evidence-based perioperative care protocol. The 30-day mortality rate in this group was compared with rates in historical and concurrent national controls.
The 30-day mortality rate following PPU was 17·1 per cent in the intervention group, compared with 27·0 per cent in the three control groups (P = 0·005). This corresponded to a relative risk of 0·63 (95 per cent confidence interval 0·41 to 0·97), a relative risk reduction of 37 (5 to 58) per cent and a number needed to treat of 10 (6 to 38).
The 30-day mortality rate in patients with PPU was reduced by more than one-third after the implementation of a multimodal and multidisciplinary perioperative care protocol, compared with conventional treatment.
Obesity may be associated with increased risk of pneumonia, but available data on this relationship are sparse and inconsistent. We followed a prospective cohort of 22,578 males and 25,973 females from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study, aged 50-64 yrs and free from major chronic diseases at baseline (1993-1997), for first-time hospitalisation with pneumonia (median follow-up 12 yrs). Compared with males of normal weight, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for pneumonia were 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) for males with moderate obesity (body mass index (BMI) 30.0-34.9 kg·m?²), and 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-2.8) for males with severe obesity (BMI = 35.0 kg·m?²), controlling for lifestyle and educational variables. Among females the associations were weaker, with adjusted HRs of 0.8 (95% CI 0.6-1.0) for moderate obesity, and 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) for severe obesity. Adjustment for major chronic diseases diagnosed during follow-up eliminated the associations between obesity and pneumonia risk. Obesity is associated with higher risk of hospitalisation with pneumonia among males but not among females, which is apparently explained by occurrence of other chronic diseases.
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2011 May;37(5):1298; author reply 1299-130021532024
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2011 May;37(5):1299; author reply 1299-130021532025
Few data exist on the impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use on peptic ulcer outcome.
To examine the 30-day mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding associated with the use of traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and newer selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors.
Cohort study of patients with a first hospitalization for peptic ulcer bleeding in three Danish counties between 1991 and 2003. Data on pre-admission non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, use of other ulcer-related drugs and comorbidities were obtained from population-based registries. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained from the Danish Civil Registry System.
Of 7,232 patients hospitalized for peptic ulcer bleeding, 28% were current non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users. Thirty-day mortality was 11% overall, and 13% among current non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users. Compared with never-use, the adjusted 30-day mortality rate ratios were 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) for current use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7) for current use combined with other ulcer-related drugs. For users of celecoxib, alone and in combination, adjusted mortality rate ratios were 1.4 (95% CI: 0.5-3.9) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.5), and for users of rofecoxib, 1.2 (95% CI: 0.4-3.9) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5-1.6).
Among patients hospitalized with peptic ulcer bleeding, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including some newer cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, is associated with increased short-term mortality.