OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of desogestrel 75 microg/day, as a progestogen-only pill compared with a copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) on lactation and to study the safety of both treatments in mothers and children. Transfer of etonogestrel to breast milk was studied in a subgroup of desogestrel users. The children were to be followed up until 2.5 years of age. DESIGN: An open, non-randomised, group-comparative study in lactating women. SETTING: University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 83 lactating women; 42 received desogestrel and 41 had an IUCD inserted for seven consecutive treatment cycles of 28 days. METHODS: Evaluation visits were planned at baseline and at the end of treatment cycles 1, 4 and 7. The amount of breast milk was determined by weighing the infants before and after feeding, at baseline and after treatment cycles I and 4. Milk samples were obtained at the same time for constituent measurements. Safety was studied by structured medical examinations and by recording adverse experiences in mothers and children. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the desogestrel and IUCD groups in composition and quantity of breast milk nor in growth and development of the children followed up to the age of 2.5 years. In the desogestrel group a slightly higher incidence of mild adverse experiences of a hormonal nature was reported among both mothers and infants. Of the children 82% were followed until 1.5 years of age and 50% until 2.5 years. CONCLUSION: The use of desogestrel 75 microg/day did not change the amount and composition of breast milk nor did it affect growth and development of the breastfed children. It appears to be a safe and effective contraceptive method for lactating women
Pregnancy-induced hypertension may be regarded as a manifestation of endothelial-cell dysfunction. The role of the eNOS gene in the development of a familial pregnancy-induced hypertension was evaluated by analysis of linkage among affected sisters and in multiplex families (n = 50). Markers from a 4-cM region encoding the eNOS gene showed distortion from the expected allele sharing among affected sisters (P = .001-.05), and the statistic obtained from the multilocus application of the affected-pedigree-member method also showed distortion (T[f(P)=sqrt(P)] = 3.53; P
The objective was to investigate prevalence, estimate risk factors, and antenatal suspicion of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) associated with laparotomy in women in the Nordic countries.
Population-based cohort study.
A 3-year Nordic collaboration among obstetricians to identify and report on uterine rupture, peripartum hysterectomy, excessive blood loss, and AIP from 2009 to 2012 The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS).
In the NOSS study, clinicians reported AIP cases from maternity wards and the data were validated against National health registries.
Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data.
A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence interval 3.7-10.9). Approximately 70% of all cases were not diagnosed antepartum. Of these, 39% had prior CS and 33% had placenta praevia.
Our findings indicate that a lower CS rate in the population may be the most effective way to lower the incidence of AIP. Focused ultrasound assessment of women at high risk will likely strengthen antenatal suspicion. Prior PPH is a novel risk factor associated with an increased prevalence of AIP.
An ultrasound assessment in women with placenta praevia or prior CS may double the awareness for AIP.