Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including asthma. We examined the effect of SP600125 (anthra [1,9-cd] pyrazol-6 (2H)-one), a novel inhibitor of JNK in a model of asthma. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized to ovalbumin and treated with SP600125 intraperitoneally (90 mg/kg in total). SP600125 inhibited allergen-induced, increased activity of phosphorylated c-jun but not of phosphorylated-MAPKAPK2, indicative of activation of p38 MAPK, in the lung. SP600125 inhibited macrophage (P
BACKGROUND: Several topical corticosteroids are available as anti-inflammatory treatment for asthma. Their comparative effects on allergic inflammation and airway remodeling are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of ciclesonide with those of fluticasone propionate in a Brown Norway rat model of chronic allergic asthma. METHODS: Rats sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) were treated with dry powder vehicle, ciclesonide, or fluticasone (0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/kg administered intratracheally) 24 hours and 1 hour before each of 6 OVA exposures. In a second protocol we administered 0.1 mg/kg ciclesonide or fluticasone only after the third OVA exposure. RESULTS: Ciclesonide at all doses inhibited the allergen-induced increase in airway eosinophils and T cells, reduced goblet cell hyperplasia, and decreased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) and epithelial cells. At 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg ciclesonide, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was also inhibited. Fluticasone did not attenuate allergen-induced BHR, despite inhibiting airway eosinophils and T cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive ASM and epithelial cells. Fluticasone (0.1 mg/kg) caused a significant reduction in body weight (9%) compared with ciclesonide (0.1 mg/kg). Ciclesonide did not change plasma corticosterone levels, whereas fluticasone (0.1 mg/kg) reduced them. In the second protocol both fluticasone and ciclesonide inhibited BHR, bronchial inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and ASM proliferation. CONCLUSION: Ciclesonide potently inhibited chronic allergic inflammation, remodeling, and BHR without having an effect on body weight and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Fluticasone prevented airway inflammation but not BHR, but both fluticasone and ciclesonide are effective at reversal of BHR, inflammation, and remodeling features.
Chronic cellular inflammation and airway wall remodeling with subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle thickening are features of chronic asthma. We determined the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced airway cell proliferation and inflammation by studying the effects of a relatively selective prodrug inhibitor of nitric-oxide synthase type 2 (NOS2), L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine-5-tetrazole amide (SC-51). Brown-Norway rats were sensitized to ovalbumin and were exposed to ovalbumin aerosol every 3rd day on six occasions and were treated orally with either vehicle or SC-51 (10 mg. kg(-1); 12 doses). We measured inflammatory cell accumulation in the airways and proliferation of cells by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. There was an increase in the total number of airway smooth muscle cells expressing bromodeoxyuridine from 1.3% of airway smooth muscle cells in saline exposed to 5.4% after allergen-exposure (P