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Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259344
Source
Acta Parasitol. 2014 Jun;59(2):301-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Symira Cholidis
Arild Johnsen
Preben Ottesen
Source
Acta Parasitol. 2014 Jun;59(2):301-4
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Diptera - classification - genetics - growth & development
Electron Transport Complex IV - genetics
Eye Diseases - diagnosis - parasitology
Humans
Male
Molecular Sequence Data
Myiasis - diagnosis - parasitology
Norway
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.
PubMed ID
24827102 View in PubMed
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Head lice in Norwegian households: actions taken, costs and knowledge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126408
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32686
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Tone Birkemoe
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bjorn.arne.rukke@fhi.no
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32686
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Attitude to Health
Child
Child, Preschool
Health Care Costs
Humans
Lice Infestations - economics - epidemiology - therapy - transmission
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Pediculus - physiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Abstract
Head lice infestations cause distress in many families. A well-founded strategy to reduce head lice prevalence must shorten the infectious period of individual hosts. To develop such a strategy, information about the actions taken (inspection, treatment and informing others about own infestations), level of knowledge and costs is needed. The present study is the first to consider all these elements combined.
A questionnaire was answered by 6203 households from five geographically separated municipalities in Norway.
94% of the households treated members with pediculicides when head lice were discovered. Nearly half of the households checked biannually or not at all. Previous occurrence of head lice and multiple children in a household improved both checking frequency and method. More than 90% of the households informed close contacts about their own pediculosis. Direct costs of pediculosis were low (less than €6.25 yearly) for 70% of the households, but the ability to pay for pediculicides decreased with the number of head lice infestations experienced. One in three households kept children from school because of pediculosis. Other widespread misconceptions, such as that excessive cleaning is necessary to fight head lice, may also add unnecessary burden to households. School affiliation had a significant effect on checking frequency and method, knowledge and willingness to inform others about own pediculosis.
Increased checking frequencies appear to be the most important element to reduce head lice prevalence in Norway and should be a primary focus of future strategies. National campaigns directed through schools to individual households, might be an important tool to achieve this goal. In addition to improving actions taken, such campaigns should also provide accurate information to reduce costs and enhance the level of knowledge about head lice in households.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22393437 View in PubMed
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Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277208
Source
Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Tone Birkemoe
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Arnulf Soleng
Øyvind Næss
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Source
Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):23-9
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lice Infestations - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Multilevel Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pediculus
Peer Group
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Scalp Dermatoses - epidemiology
Schools
Siblings
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations.
Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area.
The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6-12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics.
Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less.
With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26511728 View in PubMed
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Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101449
Source
Parasitology. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-18-2011
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Tone Birkemoe
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0456 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Parasitology. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Date
Jul-18-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
SUMMARYHead lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.
PubMed ID
21767439 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267367
Source
APMIS. 2015 Sep;123(9):759-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Katrine M Paulsen
Benedikte N Pedersen
Arnulf Soleng
Yohannes B Okbaldet
John H-O Pettersson
Susanne G Dudman
Preben Ottesen
Inger Sofie Samdal Vik
Kirsti Vainio
Åshild Andreassen
Source
APMIS. 2015 Sep;123(9):759-64
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - isolation & purification
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology
Humans
Islands
Ixodes - virology
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Ticks - virology
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests.
PubMed ID
26126504 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of tick borne encephalitis virus in tick nymphs in relation to climatic factors on the southern coast of Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121386
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:177
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ashild Andreassen
Solveig Jore
Piotr Cuber
Susanne Dudman
Torstein Tengs
Ketil Isaksen
Hans Olav Hygen
Hildegunn Viljugrein
Gabriel Anestad
Preben Ottesen
Kirsti Vainio
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Disease Control, Department of Virology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. ashild.andreassen@fhi.no
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:177
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - isolation & purification
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology
Endemic Diseases
Humans
Ixodes - virology
Norway - epidemiology
Nymph - virology
Prevalence
RNA, Viral - genetics - isolation & purification
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is among the most important vector borne diseases of humans in Europe and is currently identified as a major health problem in many countries. TBE endemic zones have expanded over the past two decades, as well as the number of reported cases within endemic areas. Multiple factors are ascribed for the increased incidence of TBE, including climatic change. The number of TBE cases has also increased in Norway over the past decade, and the human cases cluster along the southern coast of Norway. In Norway the distribution and prevalence of TBE virus (TBEV) in tick populations is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the TBEV prevalence in Ixodes ricinus from seven locations and to assess the relationship between the TBEV prevalence and site-specific climatic variables.
A total of 5630 questing nymphs were collected and analyzed in pools of ten. All pools were screened with an in-house real-time RT-PCR, and the positive pools were pyrosequenced. Two methods, minimum infection rate (MIR) and a frequentist method (EPP) for pooled prevalence estimations were calculated and compared. Climatic data were descriptively compared to the corresponding EPP of each location in order to explain variations in TBEV prevalence.
The seven foci of TBEV had an estimated overall prevalence (EPP) in pools of nymphs combined, of 0.53% with 95% CI (0.35-0.75), with point prevalence ranging between 0.11%-1.22%. The sites with the highest point prevalences were within the municipalities which had the highest numbers of registered TBE cases. The results indicate that the location with highest point prevalence had the highest relative mean humidity and lowest mean saturation deficit and vice versa for the lowest EPP.
Our study confirms the existence of TBEV endemic foci in Norway. These results are of importance to increase the awareness of TBEV infections in Norway and could be used for public information and recommendations of TBE vaccination. EPP is the method of choice for pooled prevalence calculations, since it provides estimated prevalences with confidence intervals. Our findings emphasise the possible importance of microclimatic conditions regarding the TBEV prevalence in ticks.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22913287 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256796
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 May;113(5):1847-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Tone Birkemoe
Author Affiliation
Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway, bjorn.arne.rukke@fhi.no.
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 May;113(5):1847-61
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antiparasitic Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Lice Infestations - epidemiology - prevention & control
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Pediculus
Questionnaires
Schools
Social Class
Students
Abstract
How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities.
PubMed ID
24609236 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.