Physical illness and depression are related, but the association between specific physical diseases and diagnostic subtypes of depression remains poorly understood. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between a number of physical diseases and the nonpsychotic and psychotic subtype of severe depression.
This is a historical prospective cohort study. The study population consisted of all patients diagnosed with ICD-10 severe depression, either nonpsychotic or psychotic subtype, in Danish psychiatric hospitals between 1994 and 2008. The patients' history of physical disease was assessed using the Danish National Patient Register. Using logistic regression it was investigated whether specific physical diseases were associated with relative increased risk for subsequent development of either the nonpsychotic or psychotic depressive subtype.
A total of 24,173 patients with severe depression were included in the study. Of those, 8,260 (34%) were of the psychotic subtype. A history of the following physical diseases, as opposed to their absence, increased the relative risk for subsequent development of the nonpsychotic compared to the psychotic depressive subtype [adjusted incidence odds ratio (AIOR) nonpsychotic vs. psychotic]: ischemic heart disease (AIOR = 1.3, p
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined samples of people with cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms. AIMS: To establish whether cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are followed by development of persistent psychotic conditions, and the timing of their onset. METHOD: Data on patients treated for cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms between 1994 and 1999 were extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Those previously treated for any psychotic symptoms were excluded. The remaining 535 patients were followed for at least 3 years. In a separate analysis, the sample was compared with people referred for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for the first time, but who had no history of cannabis-induced psychosis. RESULTS: Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed in 44.5% of the sample. New psychotic episodes of any type were diagnosed in 77.2%. Male gender and young age were associated with increased risk. Development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders was often delayed, and 47.1% of patients received a diagnosis more than a year after seeking treatment for a cannabis-induced psychosis. The patients developed schizophrenia at an earlier age than people in the comparison group (males, 24.6 v. 30.7 years, females, 28.9 v. 33.1 years). CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis-induced psychotic disorders are of great clinical and prognostic importance.
To investigate whether there are any trends in treated incidence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Danish psychiatric hospitals based on different diagnostic systems from 1970 to 2009.
All patients diagnosed with BPD for the first time as a main or an auxiliary diagnosis treated in in- or outpatient facilities in Danish psychiatric hospitals were identified through the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Age-standardized, sex-specific, and standardized rates were calculated for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Eighth Revision, diagnostic period from 1970 to 1993 and the ICD-10 diagnostic period from 1994 to 2009.
The incidence for BPD in females as a main or an auxiliary diagnosis increased linearly from 1970 to 2009 (ß = 0.69 per 100 000 per year [95% CI 0.66 to 0.73]). The rates for males also increased linearly from 1970 to 1993 (ß = 0.37 [95% CI 0.30 to 0.43]) followed by a linearly decrease (ß = -0.22 [95% CI -0.29 to -0.15]) in the ICD-10 period from 1994 to 2009. The increase in females with BPD after the mid-1990s is smaller when controlling for outpatients mandatorily registered from 1995.
The lack of defined criteria for BPD in ICD-8 may have been interpreted broadly to mean Kernberg's overarching concept of borderline personality organization, resulting in similar rates for males and females. However, in ICD-10, clinicians using the more narrow criteria for emotionally unstable personality disorder (borderline type), tended to diagnose BPD more commonly in women. These results suggest the importance of using specific criteria in diagnosing. They also suggest the importance of stability in the diagnostic criteria for BPD and other disorders.
Delirium is a common acute neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a variety of physical insults. It is commonly associated with a variety of serious adverse outcomes, including elevated mortality. There are few studies of delirium occurring in psychiatric patients, including its mortality. The aim was to determine the psychiatric diagnostic profile of Danish psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with delirium and to compare standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in this group with the Danish population and general psychiatric inpatients from 1995 through 2012.
All first time ICD-10 diagnoses of delirium among psychiatric inpatients were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) from 1995 through 2012.
A total of 7179 persons diagnosed with delirium were identified in the DPCRR between 1995 and 2012. Of these patients 40.8% had more than one diagnosis of delirium during the period. We identified three distinct groups, based on the first delirium-diagnosis; unspecified delirium (76.9%), comorbid delirium-dementia (19.8%), and drug-related delirium (3.3%). Use of sedative-hypnotics was noted in 46% of those with drug-related delirium. The SMR of delirious psychiatric inpatients compared to all psychiatric inpatients was stable at 1.7 throughout the time period.
Delirium occurring in psychiatric inpatients is associated with elevated mortality. Sedative-hypnotic agents are commonly involved in drug-related delirium. Particular preventative effort is warranted for patients with a previous history of delirium, as we found approximately 40% with more than one episode of delirium.
Oral health status is poor and a disregarded health issue among patients with schizophrenia that is associated with the risk for additional social stigmatization and potentially fatal infections.
A historical, prospective database study of dental visits, utilizing the Danish National Patient Registry, of 21,417 patients with ICD-10-diagnosed schizophrenia in the year 2006 and of 18,892 patients for the 3-year period of 2004-2006 was conducted. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for lack of dental care.
Only 43% of patients with schizophrenia (9,263/21,417)--compared to an annual dental visit rate of 68% in the general adult Danish population (2,567,634/3,790,446)-visited the dentist within 12 months in 2006 (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 2.7-2.9; P 50 years were associated with a lower risk for inappropriate dental care.
Patients with schizophrenia visit dentists much less frequently than the general population in the same country. Health professionals should pay more attention to the dental health care of patients with schizophrenia, actively encourage patients to regularly visit the dentist, and establish a formal collaboration with dentists to improve the dental health aspects of this disadvantaged patient group.
BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have investigated how the type of first contact is associated with the risk of subsequent hospitalisation and the risk of committing suicide for patients with depressive or bipolar disorders. METHOD: All outpatients (patients in psychiatric ambulatories and community psychiatry centres) and in-patients (patients admitted during daytime or overnight to a psychiatric hospital) with a diagnosis of depressive or bipolar disorder at first contact ever in a period from 1995 to 1999 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR). The risk of subsequent hospitalisation and the risk of suicide were compared according to type of first contact. RESULTS: The risk of subsequent hospitalisation was significantly increased for patients who were admitted to inpatient facilities during first contact compared to patients with outpatient treatment as their first contact. Patients with depressive disorder who were admitted also had increased risk of committing suicide eventually. LIMITATIONS: The diagnoses are clinician based. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred to inpatient treatment have a poorer long-term prognosis than patients treated as outpatients.
This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often phobic disorders (PHO) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors.
A total of N = 746 child and adolescent psychiatric participants born between 1969 and 1986 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) with a diagnosis of a mental disorder before the age of 18, and developed PHO at some point during their life-time until a maximum age of 40 years were included. In addition, N = 2229 controls without any diagnosis of mental disorders before age 18 and that were matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Diagnoses of mental disorders were also obtained from the first- degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS). A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models.
PHO occurred significantly more often in case than in control families, in particular, in mothers and siblings. Substance use disorders (SUD), Depressive disorders (DEP), anxiety disorders (ANX) and personality disorders (PERS) in the family were significantly associated with specific phobia in the case-probands. After controlling for various mental disorders comorbid to PHO it was found that some of the family transmission could be caused by various other mental disorders in family members rather than the PHO itself. Female sex and more recent year of birth were further risk factors while region of residence was not related to the manifestation of PHO. Case-relatives did not develop PHO earlier than control relatives. After adjusting for various additional explanatory variables, the family load explained only 0.0013% of the variance in the manifestation of PHO in the case-probands.
These findings, based on a very large and representative dataset, provide evidence for the family aggregation and further risk factors in PHO. In contrast to anxiety disorders and other major mental disorders the family load of PHO in this nation-wide study was rather low.
Cites: Psychiatry Res. 2014 May 30;216(3):351-624656517
This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families.
A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-time. In addition, N = 7472 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed.
SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, or conduct disorders in the family. Furthermore, male sex, more recent year of birth, and living in the capital city of Copenhagen were also significantly associated with having SUD. The family load explained 30% of the SUD manifestation in the case-probands. The findings in the total SUD group were mostly replicated in the two major subgroups of pure alcohol or multiple substance use disorders.
These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide additional evidence for the strong family aggregation and further risk factors in SUD. The pattern of risk factors is largely the same for the total group of SUD and the major subgroups of pure alcohol and multiple substance use disorders.
Research Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychiatric Hospital, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology, Institute of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year of birth, and maternal and paternal age at birth.
A total of N = 2,057 child and adolescent psychiatric subjects born between 1952 and 2000 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register developed OCD before the age of 18. In addition, N = 6,055 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained for the first-degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three-Generation Study. A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models.
OCD occurred significantly more often in case than in control families. Having a mother, father, sibling, or an offspring with the disorder was proven to be a risk factor. Maternal age above 35 years, male sex by tendency, and ascending year of birth were associated with having OCD. Furthermore, case relatives did not develop OCD earlier than control relatives. The risk of OCD in the case probands was significantly increased when first-degree family members had either OCD, or tic disorders, or affective disorders, or anxiety disorders.
These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide further and very solid evidence for the high family aggregation of OCD.