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Cytokine responses in cord blood predict the severity of later respiratory syncytial virus infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88876
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Jul;124(1):52-58.e1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Juntti Hanna
Osterlund Pamela
Kokkonen Jorma
Dunder Teija
Renko Marjo
Pokka Tytti
Julkunen Ilkka
Uhari Matti
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, University of Oulu, Oulu FI-90014, Finland. hanna.juntti@oulu.fi
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Jul;124(1):52-58.e1-2
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Cytokines - metabolism
Fetal Blood - immunology
Humans
Immunity, Innate
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Leukocytes, Mononuclear - immunology
Prospective Studies
Reference Standards
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections - immunology
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that an early respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can induce asthma and recurrent wheezing. OBJECTIVE: We addressed the question of whether infants contracting an early RSV infection differ from healthy children in their cytokine production at birth. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study cord blood samples were collected from 1084 newborns during autumn 2001. Of 47 of these newborns with subsequent virologically confirmed RSV infection before 6 months of age, 24 had enough cells for stimulation in cord blood samples (14 of those were hospitalized). Twenty-eight children had other respiratory virus infections (16 with enough cells), and samples from 48 healthy children of the 1084 total served as control specimens. Stimulated cytokine production of mononuclear cells was measured. The responses in the groups were evaluated by means of factor analysis. RESULTS: The infants hospitalized for RSV infection had higher LPS-stimulated combined IL-6 and IL-8 responses than the infants treated as outpatients (P = .005) or the healthy control subjects (P = .02). The hospitalized patients with RSV showed lower IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 responses than those treated as outpatients (P = .02). High IL-6 and IL-8 responsiveness predicted a severe RSV infection (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.17-4.14; P = .01). The unstimulated cytokine responses at birth did not differ between the patients and healthy control subjects. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that natural differences in innate immunity predispose children to severe RSV infection rather than the infection modifying immune responses in childhood.
PubMed ID
19482350 View in PubMed
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Failure of xylitol given three times a day for preventing acute otitis media.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77868
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 May;26(5):423-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Hautalahti Outi
Renko Marjo
Tapiainen Terhi
Kontiokari Tero
Pokka Tytti
Uhari Matti
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 May;26(5):423-7
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Child
Child, Preschool
Double-Blind Method
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Otitis Media - drug therapy
Treatment Failure
Xylitol - administration & dosage
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Xylitol administered regularly 5 times a day after each meal is successful in preventing acute otitis media (AOM) in children, but if given only during respiratory infections it is ineffective against AOM. To find a more convenient dosing regimen, we tested whether xylitol administered 3 times a day reduces the occurrence of AOM. METHODS: In this 3-month randomized, double-blind trial, 663 healthy day care children were randomized to receive either a control product (n = 331) or xylitol (n = 332). Xylitol was given in chewing gum or in a mixture 3 times a day, the daily dose being 0.5 g in the control group and 9.6 g in the xylitol group. The occurrence of the first AOM diagnosed during any period of respiratory symptoms during the follow-up was the main outcome measure. RESULTS: At least one AOM episode was diagnosed in 98 of the 331 children who received control products (30%) and in 94 of the 332 who received xylitol products (28%). A total of 142 episodes of AOM were diagnosed in the control group compared with 156 in the xylitol group. The differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Xylitol given regularly 3 times a day for 3 months during the respiratory infection season failed to prevent AOM.
PubMed ID
17468653 View in PubMed
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Infections in child day care centers and later development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis: prospective follow-up survey 12 years after controlled randomized hygiene intervention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84241
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Oct;161(10):972-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Dunder Teija
Tapiainen Terhi
Pokka Tytti
Uhari Matti
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland. teija.dunder@oulu.fi
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Oct;161(10):972-7
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of successful prevention of common infections in child day care centers on the later development of allergic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up survey with a questionnaire administered 12 years after a controlled randomized hygiene intervention. SETTING: Twenty municipal child day care centers in Oulu, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A questionnaire was sent to 1354 prior participants (98%) in the intervention trial. The response rate was 68% (928 of 1354 participants). MAIN INTERVENTION: Hygiene intervention from March 1, 1991, to May 31, 1992. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of respondents who had a diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or atopic dermatitis made by a physician, and the number of those who reported symptoms of atopic diseases. RESULTS: Asthma was diagnosed by a physician in 48 of the 481 respondents (10%) from the intervention child day care centers, with markedly fewer infections, and in 46 of the 447 controls (10%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.4). Similarly, no differences were found in the numbers of children who had a diagnosis of other atopic diseases or who had reported such symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevention of common respiratory tract and enteric infections during early childhood does not change later allergic morbidity.
PubMed ID
17909141 View in PubMed
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Risk factors for croup in children with recurrent respiratory infections: a case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90339
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009 Mar;23(2):153-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Pruikkonen Hannele
Dunder Teija
Renko Marjo
Pokka Tytti
Uhari Matti
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009 Mar;23(2):153-9
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Cats
Child
Croup - etiology
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Recurrence
Respiratory Tract Infections - complications
Socioeconomic Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Croup accounts for approximately 15% of all lower respiratory disease in children, but little is known about risk factors or its recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for croup and recurrent croup and to find out whether it is possible to predict the course of the disease. We considered croup patients who visited the Paediatric Department of Oulu University Hospital as primary health care patients at night during 1996-2000. For most analyses we used sex- and age-matched control patients who had had other respiratory infection but for environmental factors we used population controls. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis on data applying to 182 pairs of patients and controls. The recurrence rate was high, as 61% of the croup patients had had at least three episodes. Family history of croup was the most significant risk factor for both croup itself and recurrent croup. In multivariable analysis the odds ratio (OR) for the parents having a history of croup was 3.2 (95% CI 1.5, 7.1, P
PubMed ID
19159401 View in PubMed
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