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3D visualization as a communicative aid in pharmaceutical advice-giving over distance.
J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(3):e50
Publication Type
Ostlund M
Dahlbäck N
Petersson GI
Author Affiliation
eHealth Institute, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(3):e50
Publication Type
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy
Drug Interactions
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Health Services Research
Imaging, Three-Dimensional - methods
Middle Aged
Patient Education as Topic - methods
Pharmaceutical Services - utilization
Program Evaluation
Remote Consultation - methods
Telemedicine - methods
Young Adult
Medication misuse results in considerable problems for both patient and society. It is a complex problem with many contributing factors, including timely access to product information.
To investigate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) visualization paired with video conferencing as a tool for pharmaceutical advice over distance in terms of accessibility and ease of use for the advice seeker.
We created a Web-based communication service called AssistancePlus that allows an advisor to demonstrate the physical handling of a complex pharmaceutical product to an advice seeker with the aid of 3D visualization and audio/video conferencing. AssistancePlus was tested in 2 separate user studies performed in a usability lab, under realistic settings and emulating a real usage situation. In the first study, 10 pharmacy students were assisted by 2 advisors from the Swedish National Co-operation of Pharmacies' call centre on the use of an asthma inhaler. The student-advisor interview sessions were filmed on video to qualitatively explore their experience of giving and receiving advice with the aid of 3D visualization. In the second study, 3 advisors from the same call centre instructed 23 participants recruited from the general public on the use of 2 products: (1) an insulin injection pen, and (2) a growth hormone injection syringe. First, participants received advice on one product in an audio-recorded telephone call and for the other product in a video-recorded AssistancePlus session (product order balanced). In conjunction with the AssistancePlus session, participants answered a questionnaire regarding accessibility, perceived expressiveness, and general usefulness of 3D visualization for advice-giving over distance compared with the telephone and were given a short interview focusing on their experience of the 3D features.
In both studies, participants found the AssistancePlus service helpful in providing clear and exact instructions. In the second study, directly comparing AssistancePlus and the telephone, AssistancePlus was judged positively for ease of communication (P = .001), personal contact (P = .001), explanatory power (P
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PubMed ID
21771714 View in PubMed
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