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Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern Baltic Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260092
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 3;48(11):6124-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-3-2014
Author
Terry F Bidleman
Kathleen Agosta
Agneta Andersson
Peter Haglund
Olle Nygren
Matyas Ripszam
Mats Tysklind
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 3;48(11):6124-32
Date
Jun-3-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Movements
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Anisoles - analysis - chemistry
Bromine - analysis - chemistry
Environmental monitoring
Oceans and Seas
Salinity
Seawater - analysis - chemistry
Sweden
Volatilization
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA)>2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA)»2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA>2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km2) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes.
PubMed ID
24811233 View in PubMed
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Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97334
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010 Apr 16;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-16-2010
Author
Karin Löfstrand
Anna Malmvärn
Peter Haglund
Anders Bignert
Ake Bergman
Lillemor Asplund
Author Affiliation
Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Unit, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, karin.lofstrand@mmk.su.se.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010 Apr 16;
Date
Apr-16-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples were liquid-liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE. CONCLUSIONS: Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.
PubMed ID
20396970 View in PubMed
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Bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers in macroalgae from Nordic coastal regions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301914
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2019 May 22; 21(5):881-892
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-22-2019
Author
Terry F Bidleman
Agneta Andersson
Sonia Brugel
Lars Ericson
Peter Haglund
Darya Kupryianchyk
Danny C P Lau
Per Liljelind
Lisa Lundin
Anders Tysklind
Mats Tysklind
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University (UmU), SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. terry.bidleman@umu.se.
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2019 May 22; 21(5):881-892
Date
May-22-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Anisoles - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Halogenation
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - analysis
Norway
Oceans and Seas
Seaweed - chemistry
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017-2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2'-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol-dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p 1000 pg g-1 ww were Ascophyllum nodosum, Ceramium tenuicorne, Ceramium virgatum, Fucus radicans, Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata, and Acrosiphonia/Spongomorpha sp. Species A. nodosum, C. tenuicorne, Chara virgata, F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (Sweden Atlantic only) had ?5MeO-BDEs >100 pg g-1 ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.
PubMed ID
31032511 View in PubMed
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Comparing temporal trends of organochlorines in guillemot eggs and Baltic herring: advantages and disadvantage for selecting sentinel species for environmental monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262194
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2014 Sep;100:38-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Aroha Miller
Elisabeth Nyberg
Sara Danielsson
Suzanne Faxneld
Peter Haglund
Anders Bignert
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2014 Sep;100:38-47
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Benzofurans - metabolism
Charadriiformes - metabolism
Chromatography, Gas
Chromatography, Liquid
Dioxins - metabolism
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Fishes - metabolism
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - metabolism
Ovum - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism
Abstract
Within Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is aimed at addressing the chemical status and quality of the marine environment. One of the main goals is to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the marine environment. Environmental monitoring of biota e.g., Baltic herring and guillemot eggs, is conducted annually in Sweden to follow temporal changes in environmental contaminants. To determine the suitability of guillemot eggs as a sentinel species for investigating GES, we compared temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these two species from single sampling sites within Sweden. Lipid content from guillemot eggs was consistently high and stable (yearly mean for >40 years, ~12%) compared to that of herring (yearly mean for >20 years, ~3%). A significant decreasing trend of SPCDD/F in TEQ WHO1998 was observed in guillemot eggs, but no trend was seen in herring. CB118 significantly decreased in both species, but in the last 10 years this decrease was not significant in herring. A number of advantages, such as high lipid content in the egg and a low coefficient of variation make guillemot suitable as a sentinel species. The advantages and disadvantages of using either guillemot eggs or Baltic herring are compared.
PubMed ID
24680644 View in PubMed
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Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287467
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2017 Nov;61:80-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Ulrika Eriksson
Peter Haglund
Anna Kärrman
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2017 Nov;61:80-90
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis
Caproates - analysis
Caprylates - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Sewage
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid - statistics & numerical data
Waste Water - chemistry - statistics & numerical data
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment.
PubMed ID
29191318 View in PubMed
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Mass fluxes per capita of organic contaminants from on-site sewage treatment facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292564
Source
Chemosphere. 2018 Jun; 201:864-873
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2018
Author
Kristin M Blum
Peter Haglund
Qiuju Gao
Lutz Ahrens
Meritxell Gros
Karin Wiberg
Patrik L Andersson
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: kristin.blum@umu.se.
Source
Chemosphere. 2018 Jun; 201:864-873
Date
Jun-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Limit of Detection
Multivariate Analysis
Risk assessment
Rivers - chemistry
Sewage - chemistry
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification - methods
Abstract
This study is the first attempt to quantify environmental fluxes per capita of organic contaminants discharged from on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in affected recipients. Five sites were monitored around the River Fyris in Sweden: three mainly affected by OSSFs and two mainly affected by municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine environmental concentrations of 30 anthropogenic contaminants, including organophosphorus compounds, rubber and plastic additives, UV stabilizers, fragrances, surfactant ingredients and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Uni- and multivariate statistical analysis of the most frequently detected contaminants showed that median fluxes per capita of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and n-butylbenzene sulfonamide were similar at OSSF and STP sites, but the mass fluxes per capita of tris-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole, and galaxolide, were significantly lower (~2-3-fold) at OSSF sites than at STP sites (Mann-Whitney, a?=?0.05). Differences between these sites were larger in samples collected in summer and autumn than in samples collected in winter. Deviations likely originated from differences in fate processes and distances between source and sampling sites. Further studies are needed to characterize mass fluxes per capita of contaminants in waters that directly receive discharges from OSSFs.
PubMed ID
29567470 View in PubMed
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Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292281
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 01; 575:265-275
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-01-2017
Author
Kristin M Blum
Patrik L Andersson
Gunno Renman
Lutz Ahrens
Meritxell Gros
Karin Wiberg
Peter Haglund
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: kristin.blum@umu.se.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 01; 575:265-275
Date
Jan-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Sewage - chemistry
Sweden
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Waste Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, a-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p=0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p=0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. a-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000ngL-1), galaxolide (1400ngL-1), octocrylene (1200ngL-1), and a-tocopheryl acetate (660ngL-1).
PubMed ID
27744155 View in PubMed
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Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in marine and fresh water biota and in human milk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144298
Source
J Environ Monit. 2010 Apr;12(4):943-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Anneli Marklund Sundkvist
Ulrika Olofsson
Peter Haglund
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
J Environ Monit. 2010 Apr;12(4):943-51
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Fishes
Flame Retardants - analysis
Humans
Milk, human - chemistry
Mytilus - chemistry
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Plasticizers - analysis
Sweden
Abstract
The levels and relative proportions of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPs), some of which are reportedly toxic to aquatic organisms, were investigated in human breast milk and samples of fish and mussels from Swedish lakes and coastal areas in order to assess spatial differences in environmental exposure and spatial and temporal differences in human exposure. Some of the biota samples were collected at locations with known potential sources of OPs, but most were collected in background locations. Tris-2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dominated in the biota with levels ranging from 170 to 770 ng g(-1) for TCPP in perch and between 21 and 180 ng g(-1) for TPP. In milk samples, TCPP (median 45 ng g(-1)) and tributyl phosphate (median 12 ng g(-1)) were the most frequently occurring OPs. Among samples of fish from background locations, the concentrations and profiles of most OPs were quite similar, indicating that their sources were diffuse. However, in fish from sample locations near known sources, there were marked differences in OP concentrations and profiles. Fish from a stream receiving surface water from Arlanda airport displayed high levels of OPs (10 200 ng g(-1)) that are commonly used in aircraft hydraulic fluids. Fish collected at points 1 or 2 km downstream of sewage treatment plants showed significantly higher levels of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), one of the most typically abundant OP in effluents from such plants. In the milk samples obtained from women in different towns no distinct differences were detected in OP concentrations or profiles. However, the levels of TBEP tended to be higher in milk collected 10 years ago than in milk collected more recently. However, human exposure to OPs through eating fish or to breastfeeding babies seems to be of minor importance in relation to other potential sources, such as indoor dust inhalation and ingestion.
PubMed ID
20383376 View in PubMed
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Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat I: Fractionation and levels of organohalogen pollutants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61639
Source
Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002 Nov;91(5):220-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2002
Author
Mattias Oberg
Natalia Stern
Sören Jensen
Clas Wesén
Peter Haglund
Helena Casabona
Niklas Johansson
Kajsa Blomgren
Helen Håkansson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002 Nov;91(5):220-31
Date
Nov-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chemical Fractionation
Chromatography, Gas
Diet
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Fish Oils - chemistry - toxicity
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated - analysis - toxicity
Liver - chemistry
Oceans and Seas
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) oil was extracted and fractionated. To examine the contribution to toxicity and biological effects of different halogenated organic pollutants, the herring oil and the fractions were mixed into pelleted food and given to Sprague-Dawley female rats at three levels, corresponding to a human intake of 1.6, 8.2 and 34.4 kg fish per week. Herring oil, its fractions, as well as liver tissues from exposed rats, were analyzed for: eight chlorinated biphenyls, all 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorocyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), DDT-metabolites, three brominated diphenylethers as well as extractable organically bound chlorine and halogenated fatty acids. A bioassay (EROD) was used for measuring the dioxin-like enzyme induction activity. Nordic Sea lodda (Mallotus villosus) oil was used as a nutritionally equivalent control, with much lower levels of halogenated organic pollutants. A full toxicological subchronic examination is reported in the following paper (Stern et al. 2002). In this study, we report that the fractionation procedure resulted in a substantial reduction of most of the pollutants in the triacylglycerol fraction, and a pronounced enrichment of most of the pollutants into the two other fractions. However, all contaminants were present at some levels in all of the fractions. The concentrations of organohalogens found in this study were representative for Baltic herring during the mid-1990s. Rat liver tissue showed similar residue patterns as the diet, with the exception of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners that had a higher liver retention than pesticides, chlorinated biphenyls and brominated diphenylethers.
PubMed ID
12570029 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.