Discovery of genetic variants of the HFE gene has made it possible to screen for hereditary hemochromatosis. However, genetic screening raises ethical, legal, social, and psychological questions, which need to be addressed. To assess the psychological impact on individuals undergoing genetic screening for hereditary hemochromatosis and to determine the effects of providing different levels of information to the participants. Male residents, aged 30-50 years (n = 10,993) were invited to a genetic screening for hereditary hemochromatosis. Carriers of the gene variants H63D, S65C, and C282Y were offered additional biochemical screening using serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Psychological factors were evaluated through questionnaires before and after genetic and biochemical screening. According to genotype, participants were divided into three groups with different risks profiles for having/developing clinical hemochromatosis (at-risk, uncertain risk, no risk). Before completion of the questionnaires, 929 participants received only genetic information and 366 received both genetic and biochemical information. At-risk participants receiving only genetic information generally displayed negative reactions to the test result, whereas participants receiving both genetic and biochemical information were more satisfied and had fewer negative psychological reactions to the test result. Genetic screening is more readily accepted by subjects when genetic information is supported by biochemical measurements, especially in participants with a risk of clinical disease.
Women with breast cancer experience different symptoms related to surgical or adjuvant therapy. Previous findings and theoretical models of mind-body interactions suggest that psychological wellbeing, i.e. levels of distress, influence the subjective evaluation of symptoms, which influences or determines functioning. The eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program significantly reduced anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients in a randomized controlled trial (NCT00990977). In this study we tested the effect of MBSR on the burden of breast cancer related somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing and evaluated possible effect modification by adjuvant therapy and baseline levels of, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing.
A population-based sample of 336 women Danish women operated for breast cancer stages I-III were randomized to MBSR or usual care and were followed up for somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness skills and spiritual wellbeing post-intervention and after six and 12 months. Effect was tested by general linear regression models post-intervention, and after six and 12 months follow-up and by mixed effects models for repeated measures of continuous outcomes. Effect size (Cohen's d) was calculated to explore clinical significance of effects among intervention group. Finally, modification of effect of MBSR on burden of somatic symptoms after 12 months' follow-up by adjuvant therapy and baseline levels of, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing were estimated.
General linear regression showed a significant effect of MBSR on the burden of somatic symptoms post-intervention and after 6 months' follow-up. After 12 months' follow-up, no significant effect of MBSR on the burden of somatic symptoms was found in mixed effect models. A statistically significant effect of MBSR on distress was found at all time-points and in the mixed effect models. Significant effects on mindfulness were seen after six and 12 months and no significant effect was observed for spiritual wellbeing. No significant modification of MBSR effect on somatic symptom burden was identified.
This first report from a randomized clinical trial on the long-term effect of MBSR finds an effect on somatic symptom burden related to breast cancer after six but not 12 months follow-up providing support for MBSR in this patient group.
Approximately 30% of cancer patients suffer from psychological distress, and psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in alleviating it. Based on the 'Behavioral Model of Health Service Use', we investigated equity in the use of publicly subsidized psychotherapy in a cohort of Danish cancer patients. We present descriptive data on patients' use of psychotherapy and examine characteristics of those who used this service.
The study population comprised 3646 participants in the prospective Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, diagnosed with a first cancer between 2003 and 2009, aged 56-80 years. Data on cancer diagnosis, psychotherapy use and comorbid conditions were obtained from registers, whereas data on demographics, social support and health status were obtained from questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors related to use, which were subsequently evaluated with regard to equity.
Subsidized psychotherapy was used by 2.3% of the cancer patients. Longer education (> 10 years compared to 74 years: 0.07, 0.01-0.57, compared to
Background People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social behaviour tend to have a lifelong pattern of it, but in a clinical setting, are they easily identifiable as a distinct sub-group?Aims Our main aim was to establish whether distinct groups of early and later onset offenders can be identified from the standard clinical record of men with schizophrenia spectrum disorders selected for hospital treatment after conviction for a serious crime, and to test the hypothesis that even in such a clinically selected group, early onset offending would be associated with subsequent persistent and versatile offending.Methods A retrospective case file review of all 83 men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a complete 2-year discharge cohort from one specialist secure forensic hospital unit (2001-2002).Results A sub-group of patients with early onset anti-social behaviour was confirmed. Prior to this specialist hospitalisation, this group had sustained significantly more criminal convictions and were more criminally versatile than their late onset peers.Conclusions The recognition of clinically meaningful sub-groups among hospitalised offender patients seems straightforward, and may be useful in the development of more specifically focused intervention and in making sense of more longer-term outcomes. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment.
We used Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR.
Participants (N = 336) were found to be younger (p